Emergency Response Plans

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANS

Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan

Master Plan

2009

Foreword

The Province of Ontario’s Nuclear Emergency Response Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E. 9 (hereafter referred to as the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act or EMCPA). The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed.

Holders of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station are responsible for keeping it updated by incorporating amendments, which may be issued from time to time.

This public document is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario.

Province of Ontario Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Planning Structure

Figure I: Province of Ontario Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Planning Structure

The structure for nuclear and radiological emergency response planning in Ontario, which is illustrated in the diagram on the previous page, consists of the following components:

  • The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan.
  • The Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP):

Developed pursuant to Section 8 of the EMCPA and subject to Cabinet approval:

- The Master Plan: sets out the overall principles, policies, basic concepts, organizational structures and responsibilities.

- The Implementing Plans: the elements of the Master Plan are applied to each major nuclear site, transborder emergencies and other types of radiological emergencies, and detailed provincial implementing plans developed. The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans.

  • Major Organization Plans : Each major organization involved (provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions, municipalities, and nuclear organizations, etc.) develops its own plan to carry out the relevant role, responsibilities and tasks agreed to by them and consistent with their mandate. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans.
  • Procedures : Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required.
  • Checklists : The culmination of the planning process is the development of checklists based on the requirements of the procedures, e.g, individual position or function-specific checklists.

It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology. The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex K, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. Words or phrases defined in the Glossary are italicized within the text of this document.

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AECL - Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

AIM - Abnormal Incident Manual

ALARA - ‘As low as reasonably achievable’

AMG - Assurance Monitoring Group

BP - Bruce Power

BPS - Bruce Power Site

BWR - Boiling Water (nuclear) Reactor

CANDU - The name of the Canadian developed nuclear power reactor system

(from Canada Deuterium Uranium)

CCEM - Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management

CEMC - Community Emergency Management Coordinator

CEM - Commissioner of Community Safety

CESC - Corporate Emergency Support Centre

CEOC - Community Emergency Operations Centre

CEOF - Corporate Emergency Operations Facility

CNSC - Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

CRC - Corporate Response Centre

CRL - Chalk River Laboratories

CZ - Contiguous Zone

DNGS - Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

EB - Emergency Bulletin

ECI - Emergency Coolant Injection

EFADS - Emergency Filtered Air Discharge System

EMCPA - Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act

EIC - Emergency Information Centre

EMO - Emergency Management Ontario

EOC - Emergency Operations Centre

EPZ - Emergency Planning Zone

ERAP - Emergency Response Assistance Plan

ER - Emergency Response

ERMG - Environmental Radiation Monitoring Group

FADS - Filtered Air Discharge System

FDA - Food and Drug Administration

FNEP - Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan

GOC - Government Operations Centre

GPMP - General Province-Wide Monitoring Plan

GPMG - General Province Wide Monitoring Group

Gy - Gray. See definition of Absorbed Dose in Glossary, Annex K

HAZMAT - Hazardous Material

HC - Health Canada

IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency

INES - International Nuclear Event Scale

JTCC - Joint Traffic Control Centre

JTCP - Joint Traffic Control Plan

KI - Potassium Iodide

km - Kilometre

LGIC - Lieutenant Governor In Council

LHDR - Laurentian Hills Deep River

LHDRRNEPC- Laurentian Hills Deep River Regional Nuclear Emergency

Preparedness Committee

LOCA - Loss-of-Coolant Accident

LOECI - Loss of Emergency Coolant Injection

MCSCS - Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services

MCSS - Ministry of Community and Social Services

MDU - Monitoring & Decontamination Unit

MEMC - Ministry Emergency Management Coordinator

MEOC - Ministry Emergency Operations Centre

Met - Meteorology, meteorological

MMAH - Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing

MNR - Ministry of Natural Resources

MOE - Ministry of the Environment

MEI - Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure

MOHLTC - Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care

MOL - Ministry of Labour

mSv - Millisievert

MTO - Ministry of Transportation, Ontario

NIG - Nuclear Incident Group

NEMCC - Nuclear Emergency Management Coordinating Committee

OMAFRA - Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

OPG - Ontario Power Generation

OPP - Ontario Provincial Police

PAL - Protective Action Level

PNERP - Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan

PNGS - Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

PWR - Pressurized Water (nuclear) Reactor

PHWR - Pressurized Heavy Water (nuclear) Reactor

PEOC - Provincial Emergency Operations Centre

PZ - Primary Zone

rad - See definition of Absorbed Dose in Glossary, Annex K

RAG - Regional Action Group

RD - Radiological Device

RDD - Radiological Dispersal Device

rem - See definition of Equivalent Dose in Glossary, Annex K

RHRP - Radiation Health Response Plan

RNEMCC - Regional Nuclear Emergency Management Coordinating Committee

SRP - Site Reference Plan

SMC - Site Management Centre

Sv - Sievert. See definition of Equivalent Dose in Glossary, Annex K

SZ - Secondary Zone

TRF - Tritium Removal Facility

TLD - Thermoluminescent Dosimeter

UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator

WHO - World Health Organization

Chapter 1- General and Legal

1.1 Aim of Planning and Plans

1.1.1 Pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA), the Lieutenant Governor In Council (LGIC) shall formulate an emergency plan for nuclear facility emergencies.

1.1.2 Pursuant to Section 8.1 of the EMCPA, the Solicitor General (Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services) may, if considered necessary or desirable in the interests of emergency management and public safety, formulate plans respecting other types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities.

1.1.3 In accordance with the respective responsibilities of the federal and provincial governments, the Province of Ontario is primarily responsible for the off-site effects and response to a nuclear emergency, while the federal government is primarily responsible for the on-site effects and response to a nuclear emergency. In a nuclear emergency, therefore, the Province will take the leading role in managing the off-site response.

1.1.4 The provincial responsibility to lead the off-site response to a nuclear emergency will be carried out by supporting and coordinating the efforts of organizations with nuclear emergency responsibilities as set out in this Plan, the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP). The Province may issue operational directives1 and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency), where warranted and appropriate, as further detailed in this Plan.

1.1.5 The aim of the Province of Ontario, in the event of a nuclear/radiological emergency, is the protection of the health, safety, welfare and property of the people of Ontario and the protection of the environment.

1.1.6 This PNERP provides the basis upon which offsite emergency management should be undertaken to achieve the above aim.

1.1.7 Nuclear and radiological emergency plans formulated by ministries, municipalities, nuclear installations, nuclear establishments, their operators, and other agencies and organizations should conform to the PNERP so as to contribute to the achievement of this aim.

1.2 Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

1.2.1 For the purposes of this plan, a nuclear emergency occurs when there is an actual or potential hazard to public health and property or the environment from ionizing radiation whose source is a major nuclear installation within or immediately adjacent to Ontario. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material.

1.2.2 For the purposes of this plan, a radiological emergency would occur when there is an actual or potential hazard to public health, property and/or the environment from ionizing radiation resulting from sources other than a major nuclear installation. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material.

1.2.3 Where a radiological emergency (as defined in 1.2.2 above) arises onsite at a nuclear installation, the response shall be undertaken pursuant to the Implementing Plan for that nuclear installation

1.2.4 Nuclear and radiological emergencies can arise in Ontario under the following circumstances, among others (though not all such events would necessarily lead to such an emergency):

  1. Accidents or occurrences at nuclear installations, including some outside Ontario.
  2. Accidents or occurrences at nuclear establishments.
  3. Accidents or occurrences during the transportation of radioactive material.
  4. Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDD)
  5. Radiological Device (RD)
  6. Satellite re-entry
  7. Nuclear weapon detonation

1.2.5 The following types of nuclear and radiological emergencies would normally not need to be dealt with under the PNERP:

  1. An accident in which the effects, both actual and potential, are expected to be confined within the boundaries of the nuclear facility.
  2. An accident in which the effects are so localized that their impact can be satisfactorily dealt with by local emergency response personnel (police, fire, etc.) with possibly some outside technical assistance.

1.2.6 When the PNERP is implemented to deal with the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Province, through the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC), may undertake certain measures, pursuant to this plan, before or in the absence of an emergency declaration made by the Lieutenant Governor In Council.

1.2.7 The Province may issue operational directives for certain measures that are to be implemented, pursuant to the policy and guidance provided in this plan. This may include protective actions such as sheltering and/or evacuation, or operational measures such as ground or aerial monitoring. Such action will be taken in order to protect public health and safety and the environment.

1.2.8 If the Lieutenant Governor In Council (LGIC) declares an emergency (section 1.3 below), emergency orders may be issued pursuant to section 7.0.2 of the EMCPA that address the subject of operational directives that may have already been issued.

1.3 Declaration and Termination of a Provincial Emergency

1.3.1 The EMCPA sets out provisions for emergency declarations, as follows:

  1. The LGIC has the authority to declare a provincial emergency.
  2. A declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier if the urgency of the situation requires that it be made immediately.

1.3.2 The following criteria must be met to declare a provincial emergency:

  1. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
  2. A threefold test:

i. The resources normally available to the government (including legislative authorities) cannot be relied upon without risk of serious delay;

ii. The resources normally available to the government may be insufficiently effective to address the emergency; or

iii. It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon.

1.3.3 Termination of a Declaration:

  1. A declaration lasts for 14 days unless previously terminated. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days, as long as it meets the test of the declared emergency.
  2. The Legislative Assembly may by resolution extend the length of an emergency for additional periods of no more than 28 days, for as many times as required.
  3. An emergency declaration made by the Premier lapses after 72 hours, unless confirmed by the LGIC.

1.4 Responsibilities

Responsibilities of the following organizations for both nuclear emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan, are described in Annex I:

  1. Nuclear Installations
  2. Designated (Primary Zone) Municipalities
  3. Designated (Host) Municipalities
  4. Specified Ministries
  5. Federal Departments

1.5 Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Their Scope

1.5.1 Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP)

  1. The PNERP is a Cabinet approved document.
  2. The PNERP Master Plan sets out the principles, concepts, organization, responsibilities, policies, functions and interrelationships, which will govern all nuclear and radiological emergency management in Ontario.
  3. The PNERP Implementing Plans apply the principles, concepts and policies contained in the Master Plan, in order to provide detailed guidance and direction for dealing with a specific nuclear or radiological emergency.

i) Response Plans for Site Specific Nuclear Emergencies

Separate response plans have been developed to deal with accidents at the Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Power nuclear generating stations as well as for the Chalk River Laboratories and the Fermi 2 installation in Monroe, Michigan.

ii) Response Plan for Transborder Nuclear Emergencies

This Plan deals with a nuclear emergency caused by any nuclear accident or event occurring outside Ontario that could affect the Province, including one at a number of specified nuclear installations in the U.S.A. These are combined in one document since many of the features will be the same for all such potential emergencies.

iii) Response Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies

This Plan provides generic guidance on dealing with radiological emergencies caused by sources not covered by the other Implementing Plans. It would be applicable to accidents at nuclear establishments, transportation (of radioactive goods) accidents, satellite (containing radioactive material) re-entry, radiological dispersal devices (RDD), radiological devices (RD) and nuclear weapon detonation.

1.5.2 Major Organization Plans

  1. Ministry Plans

Provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions shall develop their own plans and procedures to fulfil the responsibilities as outlined in the appendices to Annex I.

  1. Municipal Plans

i. Pursuant to sections 3 and 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans prepared by the designated municipalities in respect of nuclear installation emergencies (Annex A) shall conform to this PNERP and, shall address the agreed-to responsibilities outlined in Appendices 15 and 16 to Annex I.

ii. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries should include, in their emergency response plans, the measures they may need to take to deal with a radiological accident. This would include details on the relevant notifications to/from the involved organizations (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).

iii. Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may be required to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).

iv. All municipal emergency response plans should provide for the development of plans and procedures involving local boards (defined pursuant to the Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. 2001, c. 25) and police services operating in the area to provide necessary support and assistance required by such plans, or that which may be needed in an emergency.

  1. Nuclear Installation Plans

The emergency plans and procedures of nuclear installations deal with their onsite responsibilities. They should also include the measures required to discharge offsite responsibilities in accordance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations and with the responsibilities outlined in Appendix 13 to Annex I.

  1. Nuclear Establishment Plans

Nuclear establishments have plans/procedures for the control of radioactive material and for the notification of offsite authorities in the event of an accident, in accordance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, and its associated regulations, and with the agreed to responsibilities outlined in Appendix 14 to Annex I.

  1. Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP)

The FNEP is the plan of the Government of Canada under which it will respond to a major nuclear emergency with interprovincial and/or international implications. This plan contains an Ontario Annex, which provides for liaison with Ontario, the provision of federal assistance, and provisions for obtaining international assistance, should any be requested by Ontario.

  1. Canada /United States Joint Radiological Emergency Response Plan

This is a plan jointly developed and adopted by the federal governments of Canada and the United States for early notification, coordination of activities and provision of mutual assistance between the two countries in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency in North America with transboundary implications.

1.6 Legislative Authority in a Nuclear and / or Radiological Emergency - Federal

1.6.1 Federal Roles and Responsibilities

  1. Health Canada administers the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP), which can be activated to manage and coordinate federal response activities for a nuclear emergency requiring a multi-jurisdictional or multi-departmental off-site response. Health Canada has agreed to the responsibilities outlined in Appendix 17 to Annex I.
  2. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), an independent agency of the Government of Canada, is the national regulator for the nuclear industry in Canada which includes any actions taken in response to the radiological or nuclear aspects of an emergency. In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency, the CNSC will monitor and evaluate the on-site response of the licensee, or in the case of an event with no identified licensee, the CNSC will oversee and regulate the response activities of the responding organizations to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, and ensure the health, safety and security of the response staff, the public and the environment, as well as maintain compliance with Canada’s international obligations. In either case, the CNSC will implement the CNSC Emergency Response Plan CAN2-1 November 2001. The CNSC has agreed to the responsibilities as outlined in Appendix 18 to Annex I.
  3. In the event of a nuclear emergency, the federal government will liaise with the provinces and territories as well as with neighbouring countries and the international community as outlined in Appendix 19 to Annex I. The federal government will also manage nuclear liability issues and coordinate Canada’s response, should Canadians be affected by a nuclear emergency in a foreign country.

1.6.2 Constitution Act, 1867

The regulation of nuclear energy has been deemed to be a matter of national concern that goes beyond local or provincial interests. Therefore, the federal government maintains exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of nuclear energy in Canada.

The province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province.

1.6.3 Emergencies Act, R.S.C. 1985, c.22 (4th Supp.)

Pursuant to section 6, the federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident, pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency.

Pursuant to section 14, the Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. However, where the emergency is confined to one province, the Governor in Council may only issue a declaration of public welfare emergency or take other steps when the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it.

Pursuant to section 8, while a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency.

1.6.4 Emergency Management Act, R.S.C. 2007, c.15

This act assigns responsibility to the Minister of Public Safety for the coordination of emergency management activities including the development and implementation of federal civil emergency plans in cooperation with other levels of government and the private sector. Federal authorities also coordinate or support the provision of assistance to a province during or after a provincial emergency. Assistance could include financial assistance where the emergency has been declared to be of concern to the federal government and the province has requested assistance.

1.6.5 Nuclear Safety and Control Act, R.S.C. 1997, c.9

This Act establishes the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, which is responsible for regulating activities related to nuclear energy including the construction and operation of nuclear facilities, and response to emergencies with radiological and/or nuclear aspects.

The Commission is given exceptional powers including the power to make any order in an emergency that it considers necessary to protect the environment or the health and safety of persons or to maintain national security and compliance with Canada’s international obligations. [see section 47 (1) of the Act].

1.6.6 Nuclear Safety and Control Act Regulations P.C. 2000-784 31 May 2000

Licensed nuclear facilities are required to demonstrate proposed measures to prevent or mitigate the effects of accidental releases, including:

  • Assisting offsite authorities in planning and preparing to limit effects
  • Notification of offsite authorities
  • Reporting information to offsite authorities during and after release
  • Assisting offsite authorities in dealing with effects of accidental releases

1.6.7 Nuclear Liability Act (R.S.C., 1985, c N-28)

Compensation to third parties for injury or damage caused by a nuclear incident, as defined in the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, would be assessed and paid under the provisions of this Act.

1.6.8 Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act (S.C.1992, c.34)

This legislation governs the transportation of dangerous goods (including radioactive goods) and the accidental release of ionizing radiation exceeding limits established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act.

1.7 Legislative Responsibilities in a Nuclear and/or Radiological Emergency - Provincial

1.7.1 Provincial Roles and Responsibilities

  1. The provincial government has jurisdiction over public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. In the event of a nuclear and/or radiological emergency, the province will be primarily responsible for managing the off-site consequences of the emergency, by supporting and coordinating the offsite response, and for directing the off-site response to those emergencies as detailed in this Plan.
  2. The provincial response to a nuclear and/or radiological emergency will be coordinated through the PEOC.
  3. All activities, actions and/or decisions regarding possession, handling, transport or storage of radioactive/nuclear material associated with the off-site response must meet the requirements of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, or receive CNSC approval prior to possession, handling, storing or transporting such material.

1.7.2 Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act R.S.O 1990, Chapter E.9

  1. The legislative authority for emergency management, planning and response for Ontario is the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA).
  2. The PNERP is formulated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council (LGIC) under section 8 of the EMCPA.
  3. Emergency Orders

i. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made (see section 1.3 above), the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)2. All emergency orders must be consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

ii. A Minister to whom powers have been delegated, may in turn delegate any of his/her powers to the CEM.

iii. Emergency orders are made only if they are necessary and essential, and they would alleviate harm and damage and are a reasonable alternative to other measures.

iv. Emergency orders must only apply to those areas where they are necessary and should be in effect only for as long as necessary.

  1. Reporting Requirements

i. During an emergency, the Premier or a minister (delegated) is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency.

ii. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency to the Assembly within 120 days following the termination of the emergency. If the Assembly is not in session at that time, the Premier is required to submit a report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening.

  1. Liability For Action

i. Pursuant to section 11(1) of the EMCPA, Ministers of the Crown, Crown employees, members of municipal councils and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act done in good faith under the Act or pursuant to an Order made under the Act.

ii. Emergency plans authorize crown and municipal employees to take action under those plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9 of the EMCPA).

  1. The authority, responsibilities, functions and tasks assigned in the PNERP and its implementing plans shall carry the following implications:

i. In the case of those agreed upon by an organization, it should be the responsibility of the operational/administrative head of the organization to ensure their implementation.

ii. In the case of those assigned to a position, implementation should also be the responsibility of any substitute, alternate or the person next in line of authority if the permanent incumbent of that position is absent or otherwise unable to take the necessary action.

1.7.3 Order In Council

The LGIC assigns responsibilities for formulating emergency plans in respect of specific types of emergencies to ministers (section 6 of the EMCPA). In addition to the obligation of Cabinet to formulate this plan, nuclear and radiological emergencies are assigned to the Minister of Community Safety & Correctional Services.

1.8 Legislative Requirements in a Nuclear and/or Radiological Emergency- Municipal

1.8.1 Municipal Roles & Responsibilities

  1. Designated Municipalities - Nuclear

i. Pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMCPA, municipalities have been designated to prepare plans in respect of nuclear emergencies.

ii. Designated municipalities preparing plans in respect of a nuclear emergency include:

  • municipalities located within nuclear primary zones
  • municipalities acting as a host community

iii. Designated municipalities are listed in Annex A.

iv. Appendices 15 & 16 to Annex I address the main responsibilities of the designated municipalities.

  1. Radiological

i. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries, should include in their emergency response plans the measures they may need to take to deal with the off-site consequences of a radiological accident. This would include details on the relevant notifications to/from the involved organizations (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).

ii. Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks, within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment (pursuant to Section 2 (3) of the EMCPA), should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may need to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).

1.8.2 Legislative Authority

  1. Nuclear

Pursuant to section 3 (4) of the EMCPA, the designated municipalities shall formulate plans to deal with the off-site consequences of nuclear emergencies caused by the corresponding nuclear installation (Annex A).

These plans should also contain, where applicable, arrangements for the provision of services and assistance by county departments, local police services, fire services, EMS, hospitals and local boards.

As required by section 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans shall conform to the PNERP and be subject to the approval of the Solicitor General (this function is fulfilled by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services). The Solicitor General may make such alterations as considered necessary for the purpose of coordinating the plan with the Province’s plan.

As required by section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities shall conform to the plans of their upper tier municipality.

  1. Radiological

Pursuant to sections 2(3) and 3(4) of the EMCPA, every municipality, in developing their emergency management program, must identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies. Where a municipality identifies radiological risks (as per PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies), the emergency plan for that municipality must include provisions to deal with such an emergency.

1.8.3 Upper Tier Municipal Involvement

Where the upper tier municipality is not the designated municipality under this PNERP it may, with the consent of its designated municipalities, coordinate the nuclear emergency plans for those municipalities.

1.8.4 Support Municipalities

  1. In the event of a declared emergency, the LGIC or the Premier may order a municipality to provide support or assistance to designated municipalities or to affected municipalities. Such orders, if made, would be authorized by sections 7.0.2(4) or 7.0.3 of the EMCPA.
  2. Support and assistance may include, but shall not be limited to, personnel, equipment, services and material.

1.9 Responsibilities of Organizations

The responsibilities of provincial ministries, municipalities, federal departments and organizations, nuclear installations and their operators for nuclear emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan, are given in Annex I.

1.10 Guiding Principles

1.10.1 The following principles underlie the PNERP and, through it, guide all offsite nuclear and radiological emergency management in the Province of Ontario:

  1. The Province of Ontario, through its ministries. agencies, boards and commissions, has primary responsibility for the health, safety and welfare of all inhabitants of the province, and the protection of property and the environment.
  2. The Province shall support and coordinate the response to the off-site consequences of a nuclear emergency and may, where warranted and appropriate, issue operational directives and, emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency) under the EMCPA.
  3. In the event of a radiological emergency, the Province’s role may vary from providing assistance/support to coordinating/directing the provincial response.
  4. Even though nuclear facilities are designed and operated according to stringent safety standards, emergency preparedness and response must operate on the basis that mechanical failure, human error, extreme natural events or hostile action can lead to nuclear or radiological emergencies.
  5. All plans should be so devised as to be able to deal effectively with a broad range of possible emergencies.
  6. An appropriate balance should be struck between risk and cost when assessing the level of emergency preparedness required.
  7. Exposure to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the context of the risks and costs of such avoidance.
  8. As much preparedness as is practicable should be done in advance to enable a rapid, effective and efficient response to a nuclear or radiological emergency.
  9. Preparedness should include a program of public education for people who might be affected, to inform them of plans, and to help them cope with a nuclear emergency.
  10. As far as is practicable, operational measures (especially alerting and notification systems) and protective measures should be devised and implemented to avoid significant radiation exposure.
  11. A policy of truth and openness should be followed in providing information to the public and media during a nuclear or radiological emergency.

1.11.1 Administration of the Plan

1.11.1 Pursuant to section 8 of the EMCPA, the approval authority for the PNERP is the LGIC.

1.11.2 The PNERP shall be reviewed at least every four years. Applicable amendments shall be brought forward for LGIC approval, as required.

1.11.3 The PNERP is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services.

1.11.4 The review process for the PNERP shall include appropriate consultations with stakeholders (per section 1.4) to ensure that these plans reflect current emergency response directives, changes to legislation and/or other changes to address best practice emergency management methodologies.

Chapter 2 - Planning Basis and Concepts

2.1 The Potential Hazard

2.1.1 In all of the emergencies covered by this plan, the hazard could arise either from a nuclear reactor accident or from a radioactive source which has undergone an accident or over which control has been lost, resulting in the potential for, or the occurrence of:

  1. Radiation exposure
  2. Radioactive contamination of people (internal and external) and the environment.

2.1.2 The most likely radiation exposure pathways are:

  1. Contamination of skin and clothing (external contamination);
  2. Direct radiation from a source (exposure);
  3. Inhalation of airborne radioactive material (internal contamination);
  4. Ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs or water (internal contamination).

2.1.3 The primary health effect of chronic low doses of radiation could be the induction of various types of cancers, typically with a latency period of 4 to 20 years.

2.1.4 Radiological and nuclear emergencies carry a real or potential health threat and as such, the MOHLTC’s (Ministry of Health & Long Term Care) Radiation Health Response Plan will come into effect, together with, and as a complement to this PNERP.

2.2 Protective and Precautionary Measures

2.2.1 The body can be protected from radiation exposure and external contamination by preventing or minimizing its exposure to the radiation source. This can be achieved by creating distance, by limiting the duration of exposure, and/or by shielding.

2.2.2 Internal contamination can be minimized or eliminated by preventing ingestion and inhalation of radioactive material. Once radioactive material enters the body, internal contamination decreases in accordance with the radioactive decay and biological elimination of such material.

2.2.3 A special method of protection is possible for the thyroid gland, which absorbs and stores iodine. If there is a risk of radioiodine entering the body, the thyroid’s capacity to absorb it can be reduced or eliminated by taking a compound of stable iodine before, or even shortly after, the radioiodine enters the body. This is known as thyroid blocking.

2.2.4 Specific protective measures available for minimizing the radiation hazard in a nuclear or radiological emergency are:

  1. Entry Control
  • To prevent or discourage non-essential persons from entering the affected area.
  1. Use of Protective Equipment
  • Protective equipment will usually be available for any emergency workers who may need it.
  1. Thyroid Blocking
  • Through the use of stable iodine compounds as described in paragraph 2.2.3 above.
  1. Sheltering
  • Remaining indoors with doors and windows closed and external ventilation turned off or reduced.
  1. Evacuation
  • Leaving an area or location that is, or may become, affected by radiation.
  1. Decontamination
  • Removal of deposited radioactive material.
  1. Food Chain Protection
  • Preventing radioactive material from entering the food chain at any stage.
  1. Food and Water Control
  • Preventing the consumption of contaminated food and water.

2.2.5 In planning the application of these protective measures, it is convenient to group them into two categories (see Table 2.1):

  1. Exposure Control Measures
  • Measures which protect against external contamination and radiation exposure (as a result of a radioactive cloud or plume or deposited contamination).
  1. Ingestion Control Measures
  • Measures which protect the food chain from radioactive contamination, and prevent the ingestion of contaminated food and water.

2.2.6 When considering the application of the protective measures which fall into the two categories in 2.2.5 above, it should be borne in mind that they are complementary to each other, and should be applied in combinations appropriate to each stage of the developing situation (Table 2.1).

2.2.7 Precautionary Measures

Precautionary measures facilitate the application and effectiveness of protective measures, and include:

  1. Closing of beaches, recreation areas, etc.
  2. Closing of workplaces and schools.
  3. Suspension of non-critical patient admissions in hospitals.
  4. Entry control.
  5. Clearing milk storages of dairy farms.
  6. Banning consumption of any item of food or water that may have been exposed outdoors.
  7. Banning consumption and export of locally produced milk, meat, produce, and milk-and meat-producing animals.
  8. Removing milk-and meat-producing animals from outside pasture and exposed water sources.

2.3 Basis of Planning

2.3.1 Nuclear and radiological emergency response plans must be able to deal with a wide range of possible emergencies. However, because resources are not available to make full preparations for dealing with all possible events, a judicious choice must be made to select the optimum basis for emergency management.

2.3.2 Radiological Emergencies

The types of radiological emergencies covered by this plan include:

  1. Accidents or occurrences at a nuclear establishment3
  2. Accidents or occurrences during the transportation of radioactive material
  3. Satellite re-entry
  4. Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDD)
  5. Radiological Devices (RD)
  6. Nuclear Weapon detonation

2.3.3 Nuclear Emergencies

  1. The main challenge that Ontario faces in this area would arise from an emergency at a nuclear installation4. Formal risk analysis of nuclear reactor accidents shows that there is generally an inverse relationship between the probability of occurrence of an accident and the severity of its likely consequences. The planning basis selected must strike an appropriate balance in considering these two factors.
  2. Taking the above into consideration, as well as the various types of nuclear accidents that could potentially occur in Ontario, a basic offsite effect has been selected to serve as the main basis for nuclear emergency management. The basic offsite effect could generally be characterized by one or more of the following:

i. A warning period would usually exist before the offsite effects occur.

ii. The main hazard to people would be from external exposure to, and inhalation of radionuclides.

iii. Doses would be low. (For planning purposes it can be assumed that the individual dose to the most exposed person at the facility boundary will not exceed 250 mSv (25 rem).)

iv. Environmental contamination would be limited to very low levels.

v. Low-level radioactive emissions to the environment could continue for some time (i.e., days or weeks).

vi. The impact would mainly be confined to a limited area around the nuclear installation (i.e., the Primary Zone; see section 2.4 below).

  1. Detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out in Ontario for dealing effectively with the basic offsite effect of a nuclear installation accident. The aim of this is to ensure, to the extent possible, that no person offsite will be exposed to intolerable levels5 of radiation as a result of such an accident.
  2. An accident or event could occur which could result in a more severe offsite effect, though the probability of such an occurrence is very low. One or more of the following defines the more severe offsite effect:

i. The time between the accident and any release of radioactivity may be generally limited.

ii. Radiation doses could be high (greater than 250 mSv [25 rem] for the most exposed person at the facility boundary).

iii. Radioiodines and particulates could form a component of the radioactive emission.

iv. Environmental contamination could be quantitatively significant in both extent and duration.

v. The area affected could be larger than that for the basic offsite effect.

  1. Appropriate additional planning and preparedness shall be carried out to deal with the less probable but more severe offsite effects outlined in paragraph 2.3.3 (d) above:

i. Timely public alerting and direction;

ii. Priorizing evacuations for those closest to the hazard;

iii. Radiation monitoring and, if necessary, decontamination;

iv. If needed, medical assessment, treatment and counselling.

  1. Detailed planning and preparedness will establish an effective basis to deal with an emergency caused by any type of nuclear installation accident.

2.3.4 Contamination of the environment by radioactive material could occur in a nuclear and/or radiological emergency. This requires planning and preparedness to enable detection and assessment of environmental contamination, protection of the food chain from contamination, and prevention of the ingestion of contaminated food and water.

2.3.5 This PNERP contains and prescribes the detailed planning that shall be carried out to deal effectively with any nuclear or radiological emergency that may affect Ontario. The preparedness required to effectively implement this Plan (and associated plans/procedures) is outlined in Chapter 3.

2.4 Primary Zones and Sectors – Nuclear Emergencies

2.4.1 The area around the boundary of a nuclear installation for which a nuclear emergency response plan is made shall be divided into the following zones:

  1. Contiguous Zone

The zone immediately surrounding the nuclear installation. Priority evacuations, if necessary, shall be undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the source of the potential hazard.

  1. Primary Zone

The zone around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. (The Primary Zone includes the Contiguous Zone).

  1. Secondary Zone

A larger zone within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures to prevent ingestion of radioactive material. (The Secondary Zone includes both the Primary and Contiguous Zones).

2.4.2 The approximate or nominal radii of the zones for the designated nuclear installations in Ontario (listed in Annex A), as measured from the venting or release stacks, shall be:

The approximate or nominal radii of the zones

Zones

Pickering, Darlington, Bruce

Chalk River Laboratories

Fermi 2

Contiguous Zone

3 km

none

none

Primary Zone

10 km

9 km

23 km

Secondary Zone

50 km

50 km

80 km

The approximate or nominal radii of the zones

2.4.3 The Primary Zone around a designated nuclear installation shall be divided into a number of Response Sectors. All emergency response measures, both operational and protective, shall be planned and implemented in terms of these sectors.

2.4.4 The desirable pattern of Response Sectors in a Primary Zone is illustrated in Figure 2.2. Response Sectors will lie within up to three rings around the nuclear installation: an inner ring (which is the Contiguous Zone), a middle ring and an outer ring. Within each ring it is desirable to have as few sectors as possible, while maintaining the need for flexibility and practicability in the application of the operational response strategy.

2.4.5 The actual demarcation of Response Sectors shall be carried out so that, as far as possible, their boundaries lie along clearly recognizable features, such as roads and railway tracks. Other factors to be taken into account shall be municipal boundaries, population densities, and availability of appropriate evacuation routes.

2.4.6 The Secondary Zone shall be divided into four concentric sub-zones – the Primary Zone, and sub-zones A,B and C:

  1. Sub-zone A lies between the Primary Zone boundary and a 20 km radius circle.
  2. Sub-zones B and C lie between the 20 km and 30 km circles, and the 30 km and 50 km circles, respectively.
  3. Sub-zones A, B and C will each be sub-divided into eight standard zonal sectors.
  4. The portion of each zonal sector lying within a sub-zone shall be a sub-sector.

These divisions are illustrated in Figure 2.3.

2.4.7 The actual zones and response sectors for each designated nuclear installation are shown in the relevant implementing plan.

2.5 Contamination Zones – Radiological Emergencies

2.5.1 Field monitoring will result in the delineation of zones to be used as the basis for protective measures in a radiological incident (Note: contamination zones for radiological incidents arising onsite at a nuclear installation shall be delineated pursuant to section 2.4 above):

  1. The Restricted Zone is the area within which exposure control measures are likely to be required.
  2. The Buffer Zone provides a buffer area beyond the Restricted Zone where limited measures of radioactivity are detected. This is the area within which ingestion control measures may be necessary.

2.5.2 Table 2.1 lists the exposure and ingestion control measures that could be applied.

2.6 Population Groups

2.6.1 A decision on the need for a protective measure shall take into account the projected dose to the most exposed individual in the Critical Group. This is a group, which, by virtue of age, sex or dietary habits, is expected to receive the highest projected dose. For full definition, see Glossary, Annex K.

2.6.2 When implementing protective measures, municipalities should consider that certain groups within the general population might need special consideration:

  1. Vulnerable Group

A group which, because it is more vulnerable to radiation, may require protective measures not considered necessary for the general population; examples are children, and pregnant women.

  1. Special Group

A group for which special constraints arise in the application of a protective measure, such as intensive care patients in hospitals, bedridden residents in nursing homes, handicapped persons and prison inmates.

2.7 Protective Action Levels

2.7.1 Protective Action Levels (PALs) serve as aids in planning and decision-making during an emergency, providing technical guidance on the need to take specific protective measures.

2.7.2 PALs are expressed in terms of projected radiation doses for exposure control measures of evacuation, sheltering and KI and are laid down as a lower and upper level:

  1. Lower Level

Below this level, the protective measure would not normally be justified. At or above this level, the protective measure should be applied unless valid reasons exist for deferring action.

  1. Upper Level

At or above this level, the protective measure shall be implemented, unless implementation clearly entails greater risks for the people involved than those from the projected radiation dose.

2.7.3 PALs for banning the consumption of affected foods and water are expressed as levels of radionuclide concentrations.

2.7.4 When the time available for making decisions is limited, it would be entirely appropriate to use only PALs as the technical criteria for indicating the need for the application of any protective measure. However, when such urgency does not exist (i.e., during the later stages of the response phase and during the recovery phase [paragraph 2.9.2) and when dealing with low doses over long periods of time, it would be preferable to also consider other technical factors such as collective dose and its likely health impact.

2.7.5 The specific Protective Action Levels to be used in Ontario are prescribed in Annex E.

2.8 Planning Times – Nuclear Emergencies

2.8.1 The timing of any release of radioactivity into the environment following an accident at a nuclear reactor depends both on the characteristics of the accident and the response of the containment system. Containment systems are specifically designed to prevent releases in the event of an accident, and it is only if the system fails to operate as designed or is bypassed, that the possibility of a significant early (i.e. within a few hours) release arises.

2.8.2 An early release can occur if the accident involves both a rapid release from the fuel together with a failure of containment to isolate automatically or, if there is some other form of impairment, creating a pathway for the release of radioactivity to the environment.

2.8.3 Containment systems vary in design between different types of reactor and this also affects planning times.

2.8.4 The containment design for Ontario’s CANDU reactors involves the use of a negative-pressure (vacuum building) concept which can prevent an uncontrolled release even in the presence of an impairment. Over time the vacuum becomes depleted at a rate depending on the rate of air in leakage, requiring a controlled, filtered discharge to the atmosphere resulting in a sustained or intermittent emission. For planning purposes, the sequence of events and hold-up times to be used in the case of the CANDU reactors are generally as follows :

  1. Typically, there will be a short interval after a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before containment is isolated (i.e., before “box-up”). During this interval, there may be an initial release of radioactivity (known as a “puff” release) of short duration.
  2. The interval between any initial puff and the start of a sustained emission could be as short as about one hour (impaired containment) but can be contained for a minimum of 2 days (Pickering), 2½ days (Bruce), or 7 days (Darlington).
  3. The duration of an emission (whether sustained or intermittent) could be several weeks. The largest release of radioactivity would most likely occur during the first few days.

2.8.5 In the case of the NRU reactor at Chalk River Laboratories, which is a relatively small reactor with only a limited containment capability, radioactivity would be emitted to the atmosphere commencing at the time of the accident and would likely cease within one hour, depending on the nature of the accident.

2.8.6 The containment system in the Fermi 2 reactor is of a high-pressure, low-leakage design intended to prevent any release of radioactivity following an accident. A release would only occur if containment were impaired or bypassed, and in such cases would likely commence within a few hours of the onset of the accident. The duration of such a release would depend on the nature of the accident, but is unlikely to exceed 24 hours.

2.9 Concept of Operations - Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

Operations to deal with a nuclear or radiological emergency shall be conducted in two successive phases (see Figure 2.5).

2.9.1 The Response Phase

The Response Phase requires urgent action to deal with the immediate effects of radiation. Such action may be based on prearranged plans, procedures and preparedness, when there is insufficient time to plan a response.

This phase begins with the first warning that a significant problem exists and should normally be ended when the radiation threat has ended. This phase could last for several weeks.

During this phase the following types of emergency management and response operations would generally be required:

  1. Exposure Control
  • All necessary measures designed to avoid or limit exposure to the source of radiation (and surface deposits from it) would be undertaken.
  1. Ingestion Control
  • Initially, ingestion control is imposed as a precaution to minimize contamination of the food chain and prevent consumption of food and water that may have been contaminated. As Exposure Control operations wind down, more effort and attention will be focused on Ingestion Control operations as a protective measure.
  1. Restoration
  • If appropriate, rescinding of some or all of the protective measures in force may be considered, including, the return of evacuees to their homes.

2.9.2 The Recovery Phase

The recovery phase is when action is required to restore conditions to normal. During this phase the following types of emergency management and response operations would take place :

  1. Ingestion Control
  • Assessment of the food chain and water sources for possible contamination, and taking measures to deal with it, including banning the consumption of contaminated commodities.
  1. Restoration
  • Measures to restore conditions to normal, as far as possible.

2.9.3 Distinction Between Phases

Since emergency response operations may occur in both phases, and since planning for the recovery phase should commence as soon as practicable during the response phase, there will not normally be a sharp distinction between phases.

The Response Phase of this PNERP will likely end when attention begins to focus on the hazard from contamination of the environment.

2.9.4 Long-Term Rehabilitation

In the unlikely event of large-scale contamination of the environment and/or the displacement of a large number of people, it will be necessary to undertake a long-term rehabilitation operation.

2.10 Modifications to Concepts

The basic operational and organizational concepts described in this Plan may need to be modified under special circumstances. These modifications will be made in the specific implementing plan that relates to it.

Exposure Control Measures

  • Entry Control
  • Sheltering
  • Evacuation
  • Thyroid Blocking
  • Use of Protective Equipment
  • Decontamination


Ingestion Control Measures

  • Milk Control
  • Water Control
  • Pasture Control
  • Produce and Crop Control
  • Livestock Control
  • Food Control
  • Land Control*
  • Environmental Decontamination*

Table 2.1: Protective Measures

Note - These measures are defined in the Glossary, Annex K.

Figure 2.2: Primary Zone And Response Sectors

Figure 2.2 : Primary Zone And Response Sectors

(Nuclear Emergency)

(Diagrammatic - Not to Scale)

Figure 2.3: Secondary Zone Divisions

Figure 2.3 Secondary Zone Divisions (Nuclear Emergency)

Environmental Radiation Monitoring Zones

Figure 2.4: Environmental Radiation Monitoring Zones(Radiological Emergency)

Figure 2.5: Concept Of Operations - Nuclear And Radiological Emergencies

Figure 2.5 : Concept Of Operations - Nuclear And Radiological Emergencies

Chapter 3 - Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

3.1 Goals for Preparedness

In order to achieve and maintain an adequate level of preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergencies7, the following goals are prescribed :

3.1.1 All nuclear/radiological emergency response plans and procedures shall be kept under continuing review to ensure they remain up-to-date.

3.1.2 Because the source of a nuclear emergency is known, hazard-specific preparedness activities can be undertaken. As such, the details provided in this chapter are, for the most part, relevant to nuclear emergencies.

3.2 Preparedness Responsibilities

The responsibilities for nuclear and/or radiological emergency preparedness, as agreed to by the various organizations involved, are set out in the appendices to Annex I.

3.3 Emergency Management Coordinating Committees

3.3.1 To ensure that an optimum state of nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness is achieved and maintained in Ontario, the following committees shall be established:

  1. A provincial level Nuclear Emergency Management Coordinating Committee;
  2. Regional Nuclear Emergency Management Coordinating Committees shall be established for each designated (Primary Zone) municipality to deal with nuclear issues.

Each committee will develop and maintain its own Terms of Reference.

3.3.2 To ensure that federal and provincial nuclear emergency preparedness activities are coordinated, the Province of Ontario liases with Health Canada, Public Safety Canada and the CNSC. The Province is also a correspondence member on the Canada/United States Working Group on Radiological Emergency Preparedness chaired jointly by Health Canada and the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

3.4 Components of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

Preparedness to deal with a nuclear emergency requires completion of many activities and arrangements before the emergency occurs. The main areas to which attention must be paid are listed below:

3.4.1 Planning

Plans should be developed by participating organizations, kept under review and, updated accordingly (see section 1.4).

3.4.2 Organization

An appropriate organizational structure must be designed to manage the various phases and aspects of the emergency. The outline of the provincial structure is laid down in this Plan (Chapter 4). Ministries, municipalities and other organizations involved should develop and set up their own detailed emergency response organization structures in their nuclear emergency response plans.

3.4.3 Procedures

Procedures should be developed and documented for performing the activities identified in the various plans. Such procedures will be of the following types:

  1. Branch/department/agency procedures for carrying out the roles and functions assigned to them;
  2. Procedures for emergency centres;
  3. Procedures for carrying out the various operational functions, such as alerting, notification, public direction, etc.

3.4.4 Alerting, Notification and Response Systems

These must be established, and procedures laid down for their use. They should cover the initial notification of offsite authorities, the notification of members of emergency response organizations, appropriate responses to such notifications and the alerting and public direction of the affected population. Details are contained in sections 5.5 – 5.7.

3.4.5 Infrastructure

The facilities and equipment required to implement emergency plans must be acquired and maintained, while others must be identified and earmarked, and procedures established for their use in an emergency. These requirements would cover operations centres, information centres, other emergency centres, telecommunication facilities and equipment, computer hardware and software, field monitoring vehicles and equipment, etc.. Each organization involved is responsible for identifying its own infrastructure requirements, and for meeting them.

3.4.6 Planning Data

A set of information must be built up by each organization for use in planning for and dealing with an emergency. The information would include, as appropriate, data on background radiation levels, meteorological patterns, population, institutions and resources. The data should be organized for rapid access and regularly updated.

3.4.7 Exercises

  1. The EMCPA requires every ministry and municipality to conduct exercises and the Regulations pursuant to the EMCPA further require them to conduct annual exercises.
  2. The EMCPA requires every ministry and municipality to identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies.
  3. Where the Hazard Identification Risk Assessment identifies nuclear and/or radiological incidents as a hazard, exercises should be developed and run based on such scenario(s).

3.4.8 Public Education

  1. Nuclear

Populations likely to be affected in a nuclear emergency must be aware of possible hazards and what they can do to minimize the effects. In this regard, the public living or working in the vicinity of nuclear installations must be provided with specific instructions on measures to take in the event of a nuclear emergency.

Public Education responsibilities are outlined in Annex C.

  1. Radiological

General public education programs form part of each community’s emergency management program, pursuant to the EMCPA, and should cover all hazards, including radiological ones, according to its hazard and risk assessment.

Chapter 4 - Emergency Response Structure and Functions

4.1 General

4.1.1 Ontario uses the Incident Management System (IMS) – a standardized and coordinated approach to managing incidents that provides functional interoperability at all levels of emergency management.

4.1.2 IMS presents standardized organizational structure, functions, processes, and terminology:

  1. The organizational structure provides for the chain of command and control;
  2. The standard functions under IMS for a nuclear/radiological incident include Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, Science, and Finance & Administration;
  3. Processes allow all who respond to the same incident to formulate a unified Incident Action Plan to manage the incident;
  4. IMS uses plain-language terminology to reduce the risk of miscommunication among responders.

4.1.3 The basic IMS organizational structure used for a provincial emergency response is illustrated in Figure 4.1.

4.2 LGIC and Premier

The LGIC and the Premier of Ontario provide overall direction to the management of the emergency response.

4.3 Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management and Cabinet Office

4.3.1 The mandate of the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is to ensure that the Province is prepared to address emergency situations and assume other responsibilities, as Cabinet deems appropriate. Cabinet Office supports the CCEM and acts as a link to the Premier’s Office. The CCEM is the only Cabinet Committee for which membership has been specified by portfolio.

4.3.2 The CCEM works in conjunction with the Premier’s Office, Cabinet Office, other affected ministries and Emergency Management Ontario to develop detailed plans for continued operations and constitutional governance in Ontario in the event of emergencies that could affect Ontario – regionally or provincially.

4.3.3 The Committee’s main roles and responsibilities during an emergency can be summarized as follows:

  1. Develop the overall provincial emergency management response strategy for the Government of Ontario.
  2. Conduct high-level briefings and discussions of strategic issues with appropriate ministries.
  3. Ensure management of strategic issues, and;
  4. Ensure the continuity of critical government operations and services.

4.4 Deputy Minister of Community Safety, MCSCS

The Deputy Minister of Community Safety is responsible for:

  1. Maintaining liaison between the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM) and Deputy Ministers involved in the emergency response;
  2. Leading the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services Ministry Action Group ( or doing so through a designate).

4.5 Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)

a) During an emergency or pending emergency situation, the CEM will serve as the direct link between the CCEM and the PEOC (section 4.7 below)

b) The CEM will ensure that strategic and operational information and decisions are relayed between the CCEM and PEOC in a timely and effective manner.

4.6 Emergency Information Section

  1. The Provincial Chief, Emergency Information is responsible for the development and implementation of the provincial communications plan in cooperation with Cabinet.
  2. Information must flow in both directions to ensure that Command-identified emergency information issues are incorporated into the emergency information messaging and that the PEOC is made aware of the communication plan, its amendments, or issues that may affect the overall response.
  3. Where a local Emergency Information Centre is set up, the Chief of the Emergency Information Section may provide liaison staff, if requested or deemed necessary, to ensure an appropriate level of coordination and provision of emergency information.
  4. The main functions of the Emergency Information Section include:
  • Issue news releases and other public information products on behalf of the province, to the media and provide information on the emergency, and on measures the province is taking to deal with it;
  • Coordinate news conferences on behalf of the province and provide supportive documents for provincial spokesperson;
  • Monitor media and public’s perception of, and reaction to the situation and keep the Command Section (of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre) and the local Emergency Information Centre informed;
  • Provide information on the emergency, and the province’s response to it, to ministries and other stakeholders not directly involved in the emergency response;
  • Identify rumours and counter them;
  • Provide key messages and information to activated call centres.

4.7 The Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC)

4.7.1 The Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC):

  1. Provides overall coordination of the provincial response, based on the strategic direction from the CEM and CCEM;
  2. Provides timely support, information and analysis to the CEM to coordinate the provincial emergency response;
  3. Assists communities in responding to a major nuclear/radiological emergency by providing protective action direction, advice, assistance and support in coordinating the provision of additional resources;
  4. May deploy provincial staff to assist in coordinating provincial emergency response.

4.7.2 Command Section

The role of the PEOC Command Section, is to:

  1. Approve the Incident Action Plan;
  2. Identify and resolve response issues;
  3. Identify unresolved issues to be addressed by the CEM and the CCEM;
  4. Provide advice, assistance and recommendations to the CEM;
  5. Implement decisions made by the CEM and the CCEM;
  6. Issue operational directives and guidance including Emergency Bulletins;
  7. Liaise with the Command function of other Emergency Operations Centres.

The Command Section may include technical experts and organizational representatives, as appropriate.

4.7.3 Command Staff

  1. Safety
  • Safety staff is responsible for monitoring, tracking and ensuring the safety of all personnel working at the PEOC. Safety staff may also coordinate with other levels of response to ensure safe operations overall.
  1. Liaison
  • Liaison staff acts as the link between the Command Section and other command elements involved in emergency response.
  1. Information
  • Information Staff acts as the link between Command and the Emergency Information section that is responsible for the development and implementation of the provincial communications plan. Information must flow in both directions to ensure that Command-identified emergency information issues are incorporated into the emergency information messaging and that the PEOC is made aware of the communication plan, plan amendments, or issues that may affect the overall response.

4.7.4 Operations Section

  1. Implement the Incident Action Plan.
  2. The Operations Section Chief coordinates the functions of the section and provides operations input to the Command Section.
  3. The Operations Section, will be made up of representation from the following organizations, as appropriate:
  • Provincial ministries;
  • Nuclear facilities;
  • Federal departments including Health Canada, Public Safety, Department of National Defence and CNSC;
  • Contiguous provinces and/or states;
  • Others as needed
  1. Functions performed by Operations staff include:
  • providing operational input to the decision-making process;
  • implementing Command Section operational decisions by issuing advice or direction, as appropriate;
  • monitoring and coordination of deployed provincial resources;
  • identifying and coordinating the operational requirements of the response operation;
  • sharing information between all elements, as required.

4.7.5 Planning Section

  1. The Planning Section, led by the Planning Section Chief, prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan, including the Protective Action Response Planning Procedure and oversees all incident-related data gathering and analysis regarding incident operations and assigned resources.
  2. The Planning Section includes representation from the following organizations, as appropriate:
  • Provincial ministries including OMAFRA, MOHLTC, MCSS, MCSCS, MTO and MOL.
  • Emergency Bulletin Officer
  • Deployed Provincial resources
  • JTCC representative (via teleconference)
  • Others as required (EI, Scientific staff, as appropriate)
  • Municipal Planning Team representative (via teleconference)
  • Others as needed

4.7.6 Logistics Section

Under the direction of the Logistics Section Chief, staff arranges for and coordinates all material, personnel services, equipment and resources required to manage and resolve the emergency.

4.7.7 Finance & Administration Section

Under the direction of the Finance and Administration Section Chief, staff perform administrative, financial and staffing duties specific to the emergency. This may include the capture of incident-related costs, maintenance and scheduling of support personnel, maintenance of appropriate support records, and administering procurement contracts as necessary.

4.7.8 Scientific Section

The Scientific Section of the PEOC is responsible for giving scientific direction, coordinating the environmental radiation monitoring efforts, utilizing the analysis results and solving problems. The Chief of the Scientific Section will oversee all the groups within the section (Figure 4.2), as follows:

  1. Nuclear Incident Group (NIG)

Consists of nuclear systems specialists, meteorologists, modellers, health physicists and other technical experts, including a federal liaison officer.

The Nuclear Incident Group provides the technical input into the decision-making process by:

  • Carrying out the calculations required to project offsite effects based on meteorological data, field monitoring data and source term estimates.
  • Performing generalized technical assessment of the developing situation.
  • Assigning a safety status to Response Sectors (Annex H)
  • Providing technical assistance to the Assurance Monitoring Group.
  1. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Group (ERMG)

The Environmental Radiation Monitoring Group, led by Health Canada, is responsible for planning/surveying fixed and aerial and ground monitoring activities, directing the radiation monitoring teams (Federal, Provincial, nuclear facilities and private sectors), processing the data, analysis, and assuring the teams’ worker safety.

This group includes representatives from federal departments and agencies, provincial ministries and Public Health Units.

  1. Assurance Monitoring Group (AMG)

The Assurance Monitoring Group, led by Ministry of Labour, plans the organization and conduct of air, water and food (milk, forage, and meat) sampling programs and directs its field monitoring teams with a view to confirming “safe” agri-food production areas.

This group includes representatives from:

  • Ministry of Labour
  • Ministry of the Environment
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Ministry of Health and Long Term Care
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  • Health Canada
  1. General Province-Wide Monitoring Group (GPMG)

This group, led by Ministry of Labour, shall be activated for those events where it is suspected that radioactive contamination has been widely dispersed around the province.

The GPM Group monitors the collection, transport, analysis and reporting of the samples specified in the GPM Plan, specifically air, precipitation and drinking water samples from pre-determined locations across the Province.

The GPMG includes representatives from:

  • Ministry of Health and Long Term Care
  • Ministry of Labour
  • Ministry of the Environment
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Food
  • Dairy Farmers of Ontario
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency

The GPMG directs the Assurance Field Monitoring Teams jointly with the AMG above.

4.8 Other Emergency Operations Centres

4.8.1 Joint Traffic Control Centre (JTCC)

(i) The JTCC is responsible for the management of the evacuations in the affected area as well as the traffic impact beyond it.

(ii) The JTCC includes representatives from the OPP, local police services, MTO, designated municipal road authorities and others as required.

(iii) Traffic Control Plans shall be prepared in advance by the JTCC members.

(iv) Implementing Plans detail the reporting structure under which the JTCC shall operate for each area.

4.8.2 Ministry Emergency Operations Centres (Ministry EOCs)

The following ministries shall set up Ministry Emergency Operations Centres to carry out ministry responsibilities and to direct and coordinate ministry actions (including those of their Region/Area offices covering the affected area) according to the requirements of this Plan and the directions of the PEOC:

  • Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Ministry of Attorney General
  • Ministry of Community and Social Services
  • Ministry of Community Safety & Correctional Services
  • Ministry of the Environment
  • Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure
  • Ministry of Health & Long-Term Care (see section 5.10)
  • Ministry of Transportation
  • Ministry of Natural Resources
  • Ministry of Northern Development and Mines
  • Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing
  • Ministry of Labour

4.8.3 Government Operations Centre (GOC)

The Government Operations Centre is set up by the federal government to coordinate federal activities in support of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre or activities relating to areas of federal jurisdiction. This may include liaison with any other potentially affected provinces, with the United States, any other country and, international agencies.

4.8.4 Nuclear Installation

In the event of a nuclear emergency, the nuclear installation will make provision for the organization required to carry out their offsite responsibilities. Normally accomplished through their emergency operations facility, this will include the provision of personnel to offsite provincial and municipal operations centres, provision of the necessary information and data to the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre, and carrying out offsite support activities such as field monitoring, emergency worker safety, personal monitoring, etc.

4.8.5 Community Emergency Operations Centres

(i) The municipal emergency response is under the direction and coordination of the Head of Council at the Community Emergency Operations Centre, which in turn receives information, support and direction from the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre.

(ii) The structure of the municipal organization for undertaking emergency operations shall be laid down in municipal emergency response plans. This organization shall provide for the following centres, as required:

  • Community Emergency Operation Centre(s)8
  • Reception Centre(s)
  • Evacuee Centre(s)
  • Emergency Worker Centre(s)
  • Emergency Information Centre(s)

(iii) Community Emergency Operation Centres should also include representatives of appropriate upper- tier municipal departments and local boards such as boards of health, social services departments, school boards and police services. Such departments and boards shall also provide staff as required for the various other emergency centres to be set up.

(iv) The PEOC may deploy resources to the Community Emergency Operations Centre to act as a link between the two centres. Information, and in some cases direction, to the Community Emergency Operations Centre from the PEOC may be conveyed through the provincially deployed staff.

(v) Further guidance on the function and responsibilities of these centres are provided in the implementing plans to the PNERP.

4.9 Field Response

  1. The organizations working in the field to directly respond to the incident are, as follows:
  • Staff operating pursuant to MOHLTC’s Radiation Health Response Plan, as defined in that plan;
  • Staff undertaking Environmental Field Radiation Monitoring under the direction of PEOC Scientific Section;
  • Response staff under the Joint Traffic Control Plan;
  • Staff operating in the Reception, Evacuee and Emergency Workers Centres;

Others as needed.

  1. Nuclear Emergency

In the event of a nuclear emergency in Ontario, the nuclear installation will be expected to direct their response at the ground level, as follows:

  • Onsite, to ensure that the reactor is in a safe shutdown mode, that radioactive emissions are safely ended and thereafter, to begin to restore conditions onsite back to normal;
  • Offsite, in conjunction with the designated municipality, in the operation of Emergency Worker Centres to ensure that emergency workers are monitored for radioactive contamination (and decontaminated, if necessary);
  • Offsite, in conjunction with the designated municipalities and host and support municipalities in the operation of Monitoring & Decontamination Units to ensure that the public that has been exposed to a radioactive emission are monitored for contamination and decontaminated if necessary.
  1. Where deemed necessary by Command, the PEOC will coordinate the provincial field response.

 Provincial Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Organization

Figure 4.1 : Provincial Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Organization

 Provincial Emergency Operations Centre Scientific Section

Figure 4.2 : Provincial Emergency Operations Centre Scientific Section

Chapter 5 - Operational Responsibilities

5.1 General

5.1.1 Annex I outlines each organization’s responsibilities for nuclear/radiological response and for the purposes of implementing this plan.

5.1.2 This chapter details the operational responsibilities relating to the main components of a nuclear or radiological emergency response.

5.1.3 Given the distinctive attributes associated with nuclear emergency response, the basic operational responsibilities of the province, the municipality and the nuclear installation during such an emergency are provided in Table 5.1. Further details are provided in the relevant Implementing Plan .

5.2 Control of Operations

5.2.1 Whenever a nuclear emergency occurs or, whenever a radiological emergency occurs that requires the activation of this PNERP, the Province shall be primarily responsible for leading the off-site response by supporting and coordinating the emergency response. The Province may issue Operational Directives (see paragraph 1.2.6) and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency see paragraph 1.7.2) under the EMCPA.

5.2.2 The provincial response to a nuclear and/or radiological emergency will be coordinated through the PEOC.

5.2.3 Whenever the province contemplates issuing operational directives or an emergency order for a protective measure within a municipal area, it shall consult with the head of that municipality, or another municipal official (e.g. Local Medical Officer of Health) as appropriate or as designated by the head, where time permits.

5.3 Contingency Provisions

5.3.1 The PEOC may issue operational directives to the emergency management and response organization through the centres in the tier below it. However, if for any reason, any of these centres is not functioning or is not responsive, the PEOC may issue operational directives directly to any other element of the emergency management and response organization.

5.3.2 Likewise, response organizations are responsible for taking appropriate actions according to plans, procedures and the requirements of the situation.

5.4 Declaration and Termination of an Emergency

5.4.1 Provincial

Section 1.3 above describes the authority for the declaration and termination of provincial emergencies pursuant to the EMCPA.

5.4.2 Municipal

  1. Pursuant to Section 4 (1) of the EMCPA, the Head of Council of a municipality can declare that an emergency exists in the municipality or in any part thereof. The Head of Council should consider making such a declaration whenever the municipal nuclear emergency plan is activated.
  2. When a radiological emergency occurs that requires activation of the local emergency plan, that municipality should consider declaring an emergency.
  3. Pursuant to section 4(3) of the EMCPA, the Solicitor General must be notified whenever a municipal emergency is declared.
  4. The Head of Council or the council of a municipality may at any time declare that an emergency has been terminated.

5.5 Notification Systems

 

5.5.l Initial Notification – Nuclear Emergencies

Pursuant to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and section 6 of the Regulations for Class I Facilities made under that Act, a nuclear installation or establishment in Canada will make an initial notification to the Provincial and municipal authorities upon the occurrence of an event or condition which has implications for public safety, or could be of concern to the authorities responsible for public safety. The specific criteria governing such notifications are outlined as follows :

  1. The nuclear installations at Pickering, Bruce, Chalk River and Darlington will make initial notifications according to the agreed to system and procedure detailed in Annex D and outlined in the appropriate Implementing Plans.
  2. Fermi 2 (Monroe, Michigan) has agreed to notify the province under the same criteria as it is required to use for notifying U.S. offsite authorities. The Initial Notification System is detailed in Annex D and prescribed in the Fermi 2 Implementing Plan.

5.5.2 Initial Notification – Transborder Emergencies

Notifications for transborder events are described in the Transborder Implementing Plan.

5.5.3 Initial Notification – Radiological Emergencies

Notifications for radiological emergencies are described in the Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies.

5.5.4 Internal Notification

Each organization or agency required to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency should have an internal notification procedure to inform all concerned staff of the imminence or occurrence of an emergency under this plan, and of the appropriate response to the notification.

5.5.5 External Notification

Organizations or agencies which might be affected by an emergency under this plan, or which may be required to assist in responding to it, should be notified at an appropriate stage by their links in the emergency response organization. The responsibility for making such notification shall be prescribed in the relevant Implementing Plans.

5.5.6 International Nuclear Event Scale

  1. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed an International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) for the reporting of nuclear events, and this is in use between nuclear installations in Ontario and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), and between the CNSC and the IAEA. This scale is also used by these agencies to convey information to the public and the media.
  2. In order to avoid confusion, the INES shall not be used in Ontario to make notifications under this Plan. However, provincial staff dealing with the media should be familiar with the INES in order to answer any queries relating to it (for details see Appendix 2 to Annex D in the Transborder Implementing Plan).

5.6 Initial Offsite Response

5.6.1 The Provincial responsibility for leading the offsite response is carried out by supporting and coordinating the efforts of organizations with responsibilities under this plan.

5.6.2 The Province, through the PEOC, will provide initial notification to offsite organizations which should have arrangements and procedures in place to enable an immediate and appropriate response to a nuclear/radiological emergency (Chapter 6).

5.6.3 These arrangements should include the provision of a contact point which is available for receiving and acting upon a notification message 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

5.7 Public Alerting

5.7.1 Public alerting systems developed under this PNERP shall conform to the following principles:

  1. The designated (primary zone) municipalities of the five nuclear areas (see Annex A) shall have plans that provide for public alerting systems as described herein. These systems must be of a nature to ensure that the Primary Zone population that may be required to undertake the initial protective measures of sheltering, evacuation, and/or ingestion of KI can be alerted within 15 minutes of initiation of the system. The site specific Implementing Plans shall include details on the area/population that may be required to undertake immediate protective measures.
  2. The nuclear emergency response plans of the designated (primary zone) municipalities of the nuclear areas shall detail how these requirements will be met and, pursuant to Section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities whose populations reside within the required alerting area, shall conform to such plans.
  3. The nuclear emergency response plans of the designated (primary zone) municipalities of the five nuclear areas and the Province shall include provisions to coordinate the timing of public alerting, public direction and emergency information. This will ensure that the population will have timely and accurate information on what protective measures to take once they have been alerted of an emergency.
  4. Designated (primary zone) municipalities shall undertake an initial evaluation of any new system to ensure that the requirements under this policy have been met. Further, these designated (primary zone) municipalities shall integrate regular testing of existing public alerting systems, as a component of their standard exercise program.
  5. Populations requiring protective measures due to a Transborder nuclear emergency or a radiological emergency scenario may be alerted according to the system set up for all emergencies under a community’s emergency response plan/program.

5.7.2 The public alerting system for a Pickering NGS, Darlington NGS or Bruce Power emergency shall, in addition to adhering to the principles in paragraph 5.7.1 above, meet the following requirements:

  1. The operator of the nuclear installation shall provide the resources and assistance to the designated (primary zone) municipalities to enable them to establish and maintain a public alerting system. The public alerting system selected must be subject to consultation amongst the province, the nuclear operator, the designated (primary zone) municipalities and those lower-tier municipalities therein.
  2. The public alerting system in the Contiguous Zone (0-3 km) must provide, within 15 minutes of initiation, warning to practically 100% 9of the people in the Contiguous Zone at that time, whether they be indoors or outdoors, and irrespective of the time of day or year.
  3. A public alerting system shall be installed in the remainder of the Primary Zone (3-10 km) that will provide, within 15 minutes of initiation, warning on an area-wide basis10 to the population in all of the response sectors within that part of the Primary Zone.
  4. Where the public alerting area includes more than one municipality, the selected system(s) shall be compatible or ideally, integrated in order to ensure consistency in timing, type of signal and other key implementation specifications.
  5. Such a public alerting system, coupled together with public direction (instructional messages broadcast over radio and television [emergency bulletins]), will ensure that the population within the Primary Zone will be notified in an effective and timely manner.

5.7.3 The public alerting system for a Chalk River Laboratories emergency shall, in addition to adhering to the principles in paragraph 5.7.1 above, meet the following requirements:

  1. The operator of the nuclear installation shall provide the resources and assistance to the designated (primary zone) municipalities to enable them to establish and maintain a public alerting system in the Primary Zone.
  2. The public alerting system must provide, within 15 minutes of initiation, warning to the population in the Primary Zone, whether they be indoors or outdoors, and irrespective of the time of day or year.
  3. Such a public alerting system, coupled together with public direction (emergency bulletins) broadcast over radio and television, will ensure that the population within the Primary Zone will be notified in an effective and timely manner.

5.7.4 The public alerting system for a Fermi 2 emergency shall, in addition to adhering to the principles in paragraph 5.7.1 above, meet the following requirements:

  1. Public Alerting shall be carried out primarily by the activation of the system already in place in and/or near the Primary Zone.
  2. Additional arrangements for alerting of the areas within the Primary Zone not adequately covered by the existing system, shall be prescribed in the municipal nuclear emergency response plan for the Amherstburg area.
  3. Such a public alerting system, coupled together with public direction (instructional messages broadcast over radio and television [emergency bulletins]), will ensure that the population within the Primary Zone will be notified in an effective and timely manner.

5.8 Public Direction

5.8.1 General

  1. The aim of public direction is to communicate directly to the affected public, on direction and guidance regarding the protective measures they should take in order to ensure their safety and welfare.
  2. Public direction will be implemented through the release of Emergency Bulletins through the broadcast media.
  3. As far as possible, Emergency Bulletins should be released immediately to the public, without undue delay.

5.8.2 Responsibility

  1. In a nuclear emergency, the release of emergency bulletins is the responsibility of the Province and will be implemented by the PEOC (see paragraph 6.7.2).
  2. In a radiological emergency, the province and the affected municipalities will decide who may best implement public direction (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).
  3. Stakeholders will be consulted on the content and timing of the release of emergency bulletins, if time and circumstances permit.

5.9 Emergency Information

5.9.1 The guiding principle for the emergency information operation will be to provide to the general public and to the news media prompt, accurate and timely information on the status of the emergency, the measures being taken to deal with it, and actions to be taken by the public in response.

5.9.2 While each jurisdiction (federal, provincial, municipal, other) will manage its own emergency information operation, every effort will be made to ensure that the information being developed and issued is coordinated and consistent.

5.9.3 The provincial emergency information function will be accomplished through the Emergency Information Section described in Chapter 4.

5.9.4 The Provincial Chief Emergency Information Officer (PCEIO) will ensure that emergency information is issued as soon as the need for it arises.

5.9.5 Consideration will be given to releasing information upon adoption of an Enhanced Monitoring response by the Province.

5.9.6 The Emergency Information function should be fully operational at a Partial and Full Activation response.

5.9.7 The PCEIO may dispatch provincial emergency information liaison officers to the local Emergency Information Centre as soon as the need for assistance arises or, when a Partial or Full Activation response, is implemented.

5.1.0 Radiation Health Response Plan (RHRP)

5.10.1 The Ministry of Health and Long Term Care (MOHLTC) will develop a Radiation Health Response Plan (RHRP) which will be implemented through the MOHLTC’s EOC, if it is considered likely that an incident may result in high radiation exposures to some persons (as specified in the RHRP).

5.10.2 The responsibilities and functions of various organizations in dealing with a possible hazard of high levels of radiation exposure are prescribed in the Radiation Health Response Plan, issued by the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care as an Implementing Plan to this PNERP.

5.10.3 The RHRP provides a framework for the overall health response to a radiological/nuclear event and an overview of general principles for the public health response

5.1.1 Thyroid Blocking

5.10.2 Pursuant to nuclear installation responsibilities to assist offsite authorities under the Regulations of Class I Facilities (Nuclear Safety and Control Act), nuclear installations (except Fermi 2) shall procure, in advance, adequate quantities of Potassium Iodide (KI) pill, for the Primary Zone population for use during a nuclear emergency.

5.11.2 Designated municipalities shall detail in their plans the means by which they will facilitate the availability of KI pills for Primary Zone institutions and for emergency centres (Emergency Worker, Reception and Evacuee Centres).

5.11.3 Designated municipalities for the Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Power nuclear facilities shall detail in their plans the means by which they will facilitate the availability of KI pills for any member of the Primary Zone population who may wish to possess a supply.

5.11.4 The MOHLTC will ensure that KI is available for the Town of Amherstburg, should there be an event at the Fermi 2 facility in Michigan.

5.11.5 Other operational responsibilities regarding Thyroid Blocking (stocking, distribution and administration) are prescribed in the Radiation Health Response Plan, as prepared by the MOHLTC (section 5.10 above).

5.11.6 The decision to administer KI will be taken by the Chief Medical Officer of Health.

5.12 Personal Monitoring & Decontamination

5.12.1 Personal Monitoring and Decontamination of the public can be accomplished as follows:

  1. In a nuclear emergency, through the establishment of MDUs. This shall be the responsibility of the incident nuclear installation, in coordination with designated municipalities acting as a host municipalities (with the exception of Fermi 2, where the Town of Amherstburg is initially responsible for establishing MDUs), as per the responsibilities set out in Annex I and pursuant to the Regulations of Class I Facilities under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act .
  2. In a radiological incident, where the Province activates its Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies, the MOHLTC is responsible for coordinating the setting up of facilities to monitor and decontaminate the public.

5.12.2 Municipal emergency plans must provide for the establishment of Emergency Worker Centres, the function of which is to carry out personal monitoring of emergency workers and their vehicles in a nuclear emergency. The staffing, equipment, procedures, training and operation of the monitoring and exposure control functions of these centres shall be the responsibility of the relevant nuclear installation (with the exception of Fermi 2, where it is a municipal responsibility).

5.12.3 Guidelines for Emergency Worker Safety are outlined in section 5.13 below and in Annex H.

5.13 Emergency Worker Safety

5.13.1 It is the responsibility of the Minister of Labour to oversee the system of Emergency Worker Safety to ensure that employers meet their obligations under the Occupational Health and Safety Act during a nuclear and/or radiological emergency.

5.13.2 Emergency Worker organizations should ensure the provision of equipment and training to their personnel, as appropriate, to enable them to respond to nuclear and/or radiological emergencies. The equipment should include personal dosimeters, and other personal protective equipment as required, for the protection of emergency workers. In addition, emergency worker organizations should have access to such equipment and training through mutual aid agreements or through the nuclear installation, as appropriate.

5.13.3 Annex H provides the guidance for ensuring emergency worker safety in a nuclear emergency as well as limits for emergency workers for both nuclear and radiological emergencies.

5.14 Environmental Radiation Monitoring Responsibilities

5.14.1 The following field monitoring shall be carried out :

  1. In a Pickering, Darlington, Bruce and Chalk River nuclear emergency, monitoring teams provided by the nuclear installation are responsible for carrying out monitoring in the Primary Zone for exposure control purposes. The Nuclear Incident Group of the Scientific Section of the PEOC will be responsible for the analysis of this information. The type and frequency of data to be procured will be specified in the procedures of the Scientific Section of the PEOC.
  2. For other nuclear and radiological emergencies, field monitoring for radiation exposure control purposes will be carried out under the Environmental Radiation Monitoring Group of the Scientific Section of the PEOC.
  3. Monitoring for ingestion control purposes will be carried out by the Assurance Monitoring and General Province-Wide Monitoring Groups of the Scientific Section of the PEOC (see 5.14.2 below).

5.14.2 General Province-wide Monitoring Plan (GPMP)

  1. The GPMP is intended to give a province-wide picture of radionuclide transport, deposition and foodstuff contamination. It will be developed and maintained by the Ministry of Labour, in consultation with the other ministries having responsibilities therein (see 4.3.1 (h)).
  2. The sampling operations described in the GPMP may need to be supplemented by the use of other monitoring resources that may be available. These could include other resources mobilized by the province, assistance from the federal government, and from other national and international agencies.

5.15 Liquid Emission Response

5.15.1 General

  1. A liquid emission from nuclear facilities resulting in discharges with above normal levels of radioactivity may impact Ontario drinking water supplies.
  2. The consequences of a liquid emission differ from that of an airborne emission and therefore, a different response mechanism is required.

5.15.2 Authority

  1. The Chief, Emergency Management Ontario, shall develop and issue a Provincial Liquid Emission Response Procedure (PLERP) under the authority of the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services as an implementing document (section 5.15) to the PNERP.
  2. Ministry of the Environment legislation for spills and other discharges to the environment, including Part X of the Environmental Protection Act, the Ontario Water Resources Act and Regulation 169/03, Ontario Drinking water Quality Standards (ODWQS), shall support the provincial response under the PLERP.

5.15.3 The Provincial Liquid Emission Response Procedure

  1. The Provincial Liquid Emission Response Procedure will prescribe the provincial coordination of the response to an abnormal liquid discharge of radioactive materials
  2. Details to be covered by the PLERP will include notification criteria, the organization set up to respond, operating procedures, linkages, response measures, etc.

5.15.4 Response Under the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan

When circumstances are such that this Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan has previously been activated and its emergency response organization is functioning when a liquid emission occurs, the response to that liquid emission will then be dealt with by the organization set up under this Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan. This will apply even in the case of a liquid emission at a nuclear facility other than the one for which the Plan was originally activated.

5.16 Venting of Containment

The strategy to be followed with regard to the venting of radioactivity from reactor containment systems following a reactor accident at the Pickering, Bruce and Darlington nuclear installations is given in Annex G.

5.17 Traffic Control

5.17.1 Nuclear

  1. A Joint Traffic Control Plan will be developed for each Primary Zone as well as the main roads entering it, by the Joint Traffic Control Centre committee members (as determined by the JTCC Chair) consisting of and in cooperation with the MTO, OPP, local police services, designated municipal road authorities and other services with jurisdiction over the affected road networks.
  2. During an emergency, the Joint Traffic Control Centre will be responsible for implementing the Joint Traffic Control Plan.
  3. The authority of the JTCC is to manage evacuations as well as the impact on traffic in the surrounding areas.
  4. The Implementing Plan for each nuclear area shall detail activation requirements as well as the reporting structure within which the JTCC shall operate.

5.17.2 Radiological

In the event of a radiological emergency, members of the local police force(s),OPP, local public works and Ministry of Transportation office will be assembled, if necessary, to coordinate traffic for the affected area.

5.17.3 The traffic control organization shall ensure timely input into the emergency information and public direction operations

5.18 Reception and Care of Evacuees

5.18.1 Designated (host) municipalities shall include provisions in their nuclear emergency response plans for the reception, care and accommodation of evacuees.

5.18.2 Such plans shall also make provision for the protection and care of persons with disabilities.

5.18.3 Annex B outlines guidance to designated (host) municipalities for the use of community facilities during a nuclear/radiological emergency.

5.19 Protection and Care of Animals

5.19.1 Municipal Emergency Response Plans should make provisions for the protection and care of all animals. Any emergency that affects humans will affect their animals whether these are raised for food production, kept as companion animals or for other purposes, such as in zoos.

5.19.2 The Plans should anticipate the care of companion animals brought to an emergency reception / evacuee centre, animals left behind, animals that may require evacuation as well as people who may refuse to evacuate without their animals. If there is a declared provincial emergency the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, 7.0.2. (4) provides that provincial evacuation orders can include animals.

5.19.3 The Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (OSPCA) has a mandate to protect all animals in Ontario. The OSPCA should be consulted in the development of Municipal Emergency Response Plans to assist any municipalities in planning for the protection and care of animals in their jurisdiction.

5.19.4 In addition, OMAFRA has the provincial lead with respect to farm animal disease (OIC 1492/2005) and can be consulted in planning for this type of emergency. The Ministry of Natural Resources has the lead for issues pertaining to wildlife.

5.19.5 If provincial assistance is required during an emergency for the protection and care of animals, the PEOC will help to ensure a coordinated response.

5.20 Procedures

All the organizations and agencies assigned operational responsibilities under this Plan should develop and document detailed procedures.

Province

  1. On receipt of initial notification, Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) shall initiate the appropriate offsite response (see Annex D).
  2. Implement this PNERP (section 6.3) and the relevant Implementing Plans as appropriate.
  3. At the appropriate time, declare a provincial emergency (see section 5.4).
  4. Based on a continuous assessment of relevant factors, the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre shall decide on and direct appropriate operational directives.
  5. Ministries and agencies shall implement Operational Directives issued by the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre.
  6. When appropriate, the Assurance Monitoring Group will be directed to carry out monitoring for ingestion control purposes.
  7. The Provincial Emergency Operations Centre will advise when any operational directives may be rescinded.
  8. When appropriate, the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre will declare the end of the Response Phase, and ensure a smooth transition to the Recovery Phase.
  9. At the appropriate time, the provincial emergency will be terminated (see section 5.4).

Designated Primary Zone Municipality

  1. On receipt of initial notification:
  2. Initiate public alerting system, if warranted, or if so directed by PEOC (see paragraph 5.7.1).
  3. Undertake initial offsite response, as directed (Annex D).
  4. Implement the municipal (nuclear) emergency response plan as appropriate pursuant to the provincial notification of offsite response.
  5. If appropriate, declare a municipal emergency.
  6. Implement Operational Directives or Orders.
  7. Keep the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre regularly informed of the local situation, and provide appropriate input and advice.

 

Nuclear Installation

(for nuclear emergencies)

  1. Procure in advance, adequate stocks of stable iodine tablets for the Primary Zone population
  2. Make initial notification to the province and municipality in accordance with the federal act and under the system outlined in the PNERP (see section 5.5).
  3. Conduct all necessary measures onsite to restore upset conditions and systems to normal. (However, any measure which could significantly and adversely affect dose offsite, require prior consultations with the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre, unless the necessity of taking immediate life-saving action does not permit this).
  4. Provide personal monitoring and decontamination for the public and emergency workers, through the appropriate organization (see Sections 5.12 & 5.13).
  5. Conduct field monitoring in the Primary Zone as pre-arranged with the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (see paragraph 5.14.1).
  6. Report information and data, as prescribed to the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre on the status and prognosis of reactor systems, the results of monitoring, source term measurements and projections, and meteorological measurements and projections. The information reported, as well as the frequency of reporting will be prescribed in the Scientific Section procedures.

Table 5.1 : Basic Operational Responsibilities (Activation Response)

Chapter 6 - Provincial Operational Response Strategy

6.1 General

6.1.1 Aim

The aim of the provincial operational response strategy is to use the available measures in a timely, appropriate and effective manner to ensure, as far as possible, public health and safety.

6.1.2 Strategy

  1. Detailed operational response strategies for dealing with a nuclear emergency originating in Ontario are provided in the Implementing Plans for Pickering NGS, Bruce Power, Darlington NGS and Chalk River Laboratories.
  2. Detailed operational response strategies for dealing with a nuclear emergency originating outside Ontario are dealt with in the Fermi II and Transborder Implementing Plans.
  3. Detailed operational response strategies for a radiological emergency are provided in the Other Radiological Emergencies Implementing Plan.

6.1.3 Chapter 5 and Table 5.1 outline provincial operational responsibilities - the strategy for their implementation is detailed in this chapter.

6.1.4 While the details may vary for the different emergencies envisaged under this plan, the common, basic principles for operational response are described below.

6.2 Provincial Response Levels

6.2.1 Notifications will proceed according to the procedure in Annex D (nuclear) as well as according to the details in the Implementing Plans for nuclear and radiological emergencies.

6.2.2 Upon receipt of notification of an emergency, the Province will adopt the appropriate response level:

  • Routine monitoring
  • Enhanced monitoring
  • Activation (Partial or Full)

6.2.3 The nuclear notification system is defined in Annex D.

6.2.4 The Routine and Enhanced levels are the responses to events that normally do not require a coordinated response of provincial resources:

  1. Routine Monitoring – PEOC Duty Staff monitor the situation, as usual.
  2. Enhanced Monitoring – PEOC staffing level increased to monitor a developing situation.

6.2.5 The Activation Level is described below.

6.3 Activation of Emergency Plans

6.3.1 This Plan shall be activated for a nuclear or radiological emergency when required by the Chief, Emergency Management Ontario or designate on behalf of the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services11.

6.3.2 The nuclear emergency response plans of all other organizations should be immediately activated as soon as they receive notification that the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan has been activated. Their level of activation (see below) should also conform to that of the PNERP unless specifically provided for otherwise12.

6.3.3 To enable an appropriately graduated response to a nuclear emergency, the Activation response level shall provide for either partial or full activation, as outlined below.

6.3.4 Partial Activation - Nuclear

This level of activation is unique to a nuclear emergency and is appropriate to the situation where protective and operational measures are not immediately required, but may become necessary if the situation deteriorates. Partial activation of emergency response plans should permit detailed monitoring and assessment of the situation, as well as the ability to quickly go to full activation. As such, partial activation shall include the following:

  1. Provincial and Municipal EOCs to be fully staffed;
  2. Ministry Emergency Operations Centres and the Joint Traffic Control Centre to be staffed to the level appropriate for the situation, in order to monitor and assess the situation on a continuous basis and to implement associated plans as considered appropriate;
  3. The local Emergency Information Centre to function on a continuous basis with an appropriate staffing level;
  4. Other emergency centres to be readied to a level where they can become fully operational without undue delay when required and all other emergency response personnel to be placed on standby.

6.3.5 Full Activation

Full Activation is appropriate when it is expected that protective and operational measures to deal with the emergency are necessary immediately or, will be necessary in the near future. Full activation requires :

  1. All emergency centres to be fully staffed and operational, unless specifically exempted;
  2. All members of the emergency response organization to immediately report to their places of duty, unless specifically exempted.

6.3.6 The detailed actions for, and response to, the Activation response level shall be specified in the relevant implementing plans and in the emergency response plans and procedures of organizations required to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency.

6.3.7 Nuclear

The appropriate response level to be initially adopted upon receipt of an initial notification from a nuclear facility is indicated in Appendix 1, Annex D. However, the PEOC may revise that response level when considered appropriate, and will then make the appropriate notifications, as necessary.

6.4 Declaration and Termination of a Provincial Emergency

The considerations as well as the procedure for recommending declaration, public notification and termination of a provincial emergency can be found at section 1.3.

6.5 Protective Action Decision-Making

6.5.1 Protective actions include precautionary measures and protective measures (section 2.2).

6.5.2 In principle, protective actions should be applied so as to prevent any increased exposure of people to radiation due to the emergency. In practice, this may not always be justified since protective actions also entail some risk and/or cost. It is therefore necessary to optimize the application of protective actions so as to minimize the total risk or detriment involved.

6.5.3 A range of precautionary and protective measures are available to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies (section 2.2). They are complementary to each other, and should be applied in combination as appropriate to the situation, and taking into account their respective efficacies and limitations.

6.5.4 In a nuclear emergency, if a protective measure is warranted at any boundary of a Response Sector, it shall, as a general rule, be applied to the whole sector.

6.5.5 Where a protective measure is warranted, the PEOC shall issue an Operational Directive or, once an emergency is declared, the Province shall issue an order for that protective measures(s) and the area of that measure shall be defined.

6.5.6 Nuclear

Due to the nature of nuclear reactor emergencies, certain decision-making criteria are known or can be modelled. Therefore the application of protective actions can be optimized and decisions taken according to the following guidelines:

  1. In situations in which time and/or data are not available to carry out a proper assessment of imminent risk, pre-planned measures should be instituted based on a conservative estimate of the situation. These measures shall be detailed in the Implementing Plans.
  2. When time and/or data are available for assessing the risk from potential radiation exposure before it is expected to occur, decision-making should commence with a technical assessment which provides guidance on whether there is the need to take any particular protective action.
  3. Assessments shall be carried out by calculating projected doses and relating them to the Protective Action Levels (Annex E).
  4. The technical assessment should then be weighed in the context of operational factors and public policy considerations. This should provide an overall assessment of the risks and costs involved in taking (as well as not taking) various measures. The final decision should be based on what action is considered most appropriate for public safety and welfare.
  5. As the situation develops, it should be continuously re-assessed and appropriate decisions taken on applying protective actions as well as rescinding those no longer necessary.

6.5.7 Radiological

In the first instance, before reliable radiological information is available, protective action decisions will have been taken by first responders (see Other Radiological Emergencies Implementing Plan).

Once the environmental monitoring teams are activated and data is received and analyzed, these protective measures can be adjusted, based on operational, technical and public policy considerations.

6.6 Protective Action Response Strategy

Below is the range of measures that may be implemented in a nuclear or radiological emergency response:

6.6.1 Exposure Control Measures

  1. Thyroid Blocking

If necessary, this will be directed and implemented as prescribed in the Radiation Health Response Plan (section 5.10).

  1. Evacuations

Where the dose or projected dose is expected to equal or exceed the Protective Action Level for evacuations in any area, the population therein should be advised to evacuate.

For those areas where sheltering is expected to be required for more than 24 hours, evacuations should be considered.

  1. Sheltering

Areas where the dose projection is expected to equal or exceed the lower Protective Action Level (PAL) for sheltering, should be directed to shelter.

In order to reduce dose, sheltering may be considered for areas likely to receive doses below the lower PAL for sheltering.

6.6.2 Ingestion Control Measures

The strategy for implementing ingestion control measures during a nuclear or radiological emergency in which radioactivity, or the potential for it, is present, should be based on the following:

  1. At the commencement of the emergency, consider the application of the ingestion control measures as a precautionary measure (paragraph 2.2.7). For a nuclear emergency the area of application will normally be the Primary Zone, but could be larger if considered appropriate.
  2. Upon full activation, consider initiating general province-wide monitoring (paragraph 5.14.2).
  3. When the situation has stabilized, carry out assurance monitoring (paragraph 5.14.1).
  4. Apply or adjust ingestion control measures, as and when required, based on the results of the monitoring.
  5. Lift the measures imposed, where and when justified.

6.7 Additional Operational Response Strategies

6.7.1 Public Alerting - Nuclear

  1. In case of a nuclear ongoing or imminent emission of radioactivity, the population within the alerting area shall be immediately notified through the activation of the public alerting system, and an appropriate message shall be broadcast via the media.
  2. The public education program (Annex C) provides instructions to the population that when the public alerting system is activated they should immediately tune into the broadcast media for further instructions.

6.7.2 Public Direction

The Province will issue Emergency Bulletins in the event of a nuclear emergency and may also, if deemed appropriate, issue them in a radiological emergency.

The system of public direction shall be implemented, as follows:

  1. When an Activation response (Partial or Full) is adopted (see section 6.3.3), the PEOC shall notify the broadcast media and shall issue an Emergency Bulletin informing the affected public:
  • That a problem exists;
  • To stay tuned to the media for further information;
  • Advising of precautionary and protective measures , if any; or,
  • Precautionary and protective measures being rescinded.
  1. Depending on the nature and progress of the emergency, some Emergency Bulletins are likely to be written at the time decisions are taken. Every attempt will be made to consult with stakeholders as to the bulletin content, if time and circumstance permit.
  2. The PEOC shall ensure that Emergency Bulletins are distributed in a timely manner. Arrangements shall be in place to ensure the media broadcasts the relevant bulletin as soon as possible once the public alerting system is activated.
  3. Nuclear
  • Because the public alerting system may be automatically activated upon a General Emergency notification (nuclear), every effort shall be made to ensure that an Emergency Bulletin is broadcast in a timely manner.
  • As far as possible for nuclear emergencies, Emergency Bulletins shall be pre-scripted.
  • The public education program for nuclear emergencies shall include information regarding the means by which public direction will be carried out.

6.7.3 Traffic Control

  1. Traffic Control Plans prepared in advance for nuclear emergencies should be designed to allow implementation in three incremental stages:
  • Stage 1. Automatically initiated as soon as the Traffic Control Plan is activated. The aim in this stage shall be to keep traffic flowing smoothly on the main evacuation routes, and to ensure that these routes remain open.
  • Stage 2. Initiated when it appears that the emergency may require evacuations, or when spontaneous evacuations begin to occur. Traffic shall be prevented from entering the Primary Zone on the main evacuation routes and shall instead be diverted around it (local traffic can still enter the Zone on other routes). However, access shall be allowed to emergency workers who have tasks to perform in the Primary Zone. Stage 1 measures will continue.
  • Stage 3. Initiated when particular sectors are likely to be evacuated. Resources shall be deployed to ensure that their evacuation proceeds smoothly beyond the Primary Zone boundary. Stages 1 and 2 measures will continue.

6.7.4 Emergency Information

  1. A Provincial Emergency Information Plan shall be developed in advance by the Provincial Chief Emergency Information Officer (PCEIO) and shall be implemented during a nuclear or radiological emergency. It shall contain a communications strategy to achieve the principle stated in paragraph 5.9.1.
  2. Information relating to the emergency will be issued through the Provincial Emergency Information Section [section 4.7]. Ministries of the province should channel information on the emergency that they wish to release through the Emergency Information Section.
  3. The Federal component of the Emergency Information Section would be expected to ensure coordination and consistency of any information being released by any Federal agency, including the Federal spokesperson in Ottawa, with provincial emergency information.
  4. The PCEIO may dispatch emergency information staff to the local Emergency Information Centre to provide assistance and to ensure that the information being issued is consistent and coordinated with that being released by all jurisdictions.

6.7.5 Personal Monitoring & Decontamination

  1. Monitoring & Decontamination Units should be set up pursuant to section 5.12 and the affected public will be advised to proceed to these centres for monitoring and decontamination, if possible.
  2. In a rapidly escalating situation only those evacuees likely to be contaminated will be directed to an MDU located outside the Primary Zone.
  3. Evacuees who are not likely to be contaminated will be advised to evacuate to a destination of their choice and to undertake self-decontamination upon arrival. Self-decontamination involves bagging the contaminated clothing, showering with soap, shampoo and water, and putting on clean clothes. Public monitoring and decontamination sites will be set up and announcements made once the initial evacuations have been completed.
  4. Evacuees from sectors not affected by the emission will be directed to a destination of their choosing.

6.7.6 Radiation Health Response

If there is a reasonable possibility of significant radiation exposure, appropriate measures under the Radiation Health Response Plan shall be undertaken (section 5.10).

6.7.7 Environmental Radiation Monitoring

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring will be directed for both the area where the radiological incident occurred and, in the event of a widely dispersed event, for selected sites around the Province as well, in order to gather radiological information about the contamination, e.g. plume and deposition, air and ground concentrations, exposure rates, etc.
  2. Hybrid teams comprising members from federal, provincial, Ontario’s nuclear facilities and private sector organizations, will be assembled to jointly carry out environmental radiation monitoring activities.
  3. The PEOC will have the overall responsibility of organizing and coordinating the radiation monitoring resources and utilization of findings according to the Environmental Radiation Monitoring procedures.
  4. Initially, fixed monitoring resources will be surveyed and aerial monitoring teams will be deployed. Such radiation monitoring serves to identify the type of radioactive contaminants, their dispersal, and if additional resources are needed. The resulting information can then be used to direct field monitoring resources to carry out more detailed field surveys in order to develop a more refined contamination picture.
  5. Radiological

(i) Where the radiological incident is of a magnitude requiring provincial resources, the PEOC will establish contamination zones within which appropriate protective measures can be directed.

(ii) The radiological picture of the contaminated area will continue to change over time due to radioactive decay, natural processes of weathering, dispersion, dilution, etc. as well as human activities and intervention. It will therefore be necessary to continue a monitoring program to keep track of the changing radiological situation. As more accurate data accumulates, the boundaries of the zones and the requirement for and extent of, protective measures will be appropriately adjusted.

  1. The procedures of the Scientific Section of the PEOC shall detail how environmental radiation monitoring shall be carried out.

6.7.8 Emergency Worker Safety

Nuclear

  1. Municipal Plans shall include provisions for the establishment of Emergency Worker Centres.
  2. Nuclear Installations shall provide the necessary resources (pursuant to their responsibilities under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations) to set up and operate Emergency Worker Centres.
  3. Plans/procedures should provide for a system for ensuring the safety of emergency workers as follows:

i. One or more Emergency Worker Centres be set up to provide personal monitoring devices and, where necessary, protective equipment to emergency workers to monitor, and if necessary decontaminate, workers leaving the affected area; and to maintain their radiation records;

ii. It is the responsibility of the Emergency Worker Centre to advise an emergency worker registered with them not to incur any further exposure if this would cause them to exceed the exposure limits;

iii. Periodically, the sectors in which workers may be required to operate will be assigned a safety status in terms of a colour code;

iv. Emergency workers should observe the precautions appropriate to the safety status of the sector they are working in;

v. Emergency workers who are required to operate close to the nuclear installation at the commencement of an emergency (before an Emergency Worker Centre is functioning) should be provided with the necessary equipment to enable them to do so in a safe manner.

  1. Guidelines for assigning safety status and the precautions associated with each status are prescribed in Annex H (Appendix 1).
  2. Safety status shall be assigned as follows:

i. Initially, as laid down in the relevant nuclear Implementing Plan;

ii. Thereafter, periodically, by the PEOC;

iii. The assignment of safety status will only be done if the emission is ongoing/imminent. If the emission is delayed, it will be done approximately 2 hours prior to the release.

Radiological

Monitoring and Decontamination of emergency workers during a radiological incident shall be detailed in the Radiation Health Response Plan (MOHLTC).

6.8 Operational Conventions

6.8.1 Time shall be local time, unless otherwise specified, expressed as for a 24-hour clock, starting with zero hour at midnight. For example, 10 a.m. shall be expressed as 1000, and 10 p.m. as 2200.

6.8.2 Location on the Primary Zone maps shall be expressed with reference to relative position to streets and other landmarks. The same methodology should be employed on the Secondary Zone maps. If not feasible, or insufficiently accurate, location shall be expressed as a grid reference in Universal Transverse Mercator. Other systems may be used by prior arrangements between the parties concerned.

6.8.3 Wind Direction shall be given in degrees (with zero degrees being north and measuring clockwise) and shall always be expressed as, “From X degrees towards Y degrees”.

6.8.4 Radiological Units shall be expressed in the International (SI) System, with equivalents in the old system given in parenthesis. A conversion table is given in Annex J.

6.9 Transition from Response Phase to Recovery Phase

  1. At a suitable stage the PEOC shall consult with the major organizations involved in the emergency response regarding their transition to the Recovery Phase, and what lead time they would need to make a smooth transition.
  2. Based on these consultations, the PEOC shall set a time for the ending of the Response Phase (and the commencement of Recovery Phase) and inform all concerned in advance.
  3. At the transition period, the Response Phase will end, the Recovery Phase will commence, and the required organizational and other changes shall be made by all those affected.

6.10 Termination of Offsite Response

Response to a nuclear or radiological emergency shall be terminated in one of the following ways:

  1. A decision by the Chief, Emergency Management Ontario or designate, that the event that caused the initial notification shall not be dealt with under this Plan;
  2. Prior to the partial activation of this Plan (section 6.3), a formal termination of the provincial response by the Chief, Emergency Management Ontario, or designate;
  3. After the partial or full activation of this Plan (section 6.3), a formal termination of the offsite response by the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre;
  4. Following an emergency declaration, termination of the emergency pursuant to section 7.0.7 of the EMCPA (see section 1.3).

Annex A Nuclear Installations and Designated Municipalities

Pursuant to subsection 3(4) of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c.E.9, the following municipalities are hereby designated as municipalities that must address nuclear emergencies in their municipal emergency plans: either for the purposes of protecting their citizens from the hazard or in the capacity of host municipality.

Nuclear Installations and Designated Municipalities

Nuclear Installation1

Designated (Primary Zone)

Municipalities2

Designated (Host)

Municipalities2

Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

  1. Regional Municipality of Durham
  2. City of Toronto
  • City of Peterborough

Bruce Power

Municipality of Kincardine

Town of Saugeen Shores

Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

Regional Municipality of Durham

  • City of Toronto
  • City of Peterborough

Chalk River Laboratories

  1. Town of Laurentian Hills133
  2. Town of Deep River143

Town of Deep River

Fermi 2 Power Plant

(Michigan, USA)

Town of Amherstburg

  • City of Windsor
  • Town of Essex

Nuclear Installations and Designated Municipalities

Annex B - The Use Of Community Facilities During A Nuclear/Radiological Emergency

(Ref : Paragraph 5.18.3)

1.0 General Concept for Community Facilities

1.1 Community facilities such as community centres, schools and colleges may be used to support the response to a nuclear emergency, primarily as Reception Centres, Evacuee Centres or as Monitoring and Decontamination Units (MDUs) for citizens temporarily displaced by the event. In considering the impact a nuclear emergency may have on these community facilities, it is important to note the following:

  • A nuclear emergency is a very unlikely event;
  • Should an event occur, evacuation normally takes place well before the release of radiation to the atmosphere, thus radioactive contamination is also very unlikely; and
  • Should radioactive contamination result from evacuees being monitored and decontaminated at community facilities then:

(i) Contamination will be confined to limited areas.

(ii) Facilities will be restored to pre-emergency condition as soon as possible.

2.0 Legislation

2.1 The legislative basis for dealing with emergencies in Ontario is the EMCPA. The Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan is promulgated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council under section 8 of the EMCPA and, under section 3 (4), designated municipalities must also prepare emergency plans dealing with a nuclear emergency. These plans must conform to the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan.

3.0 Declaring an Emergency

3.1 Whenever the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan has been or is to be activated, the LGIC or Premier may declare an emergency in that area.

3.2 Under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (section 7.0.1 (1)), the LGIC or Premier can declare that an emergency exists in the Province, or any part of it.

3.3 Similarly, the head of council of a municipality can declare that an emergency exists in the municipality, or any part of it (section 4.1 below).

3.4 The purpose of an emergency declaration is to enable both the Province and municipality to take any lawful actions considered necessary to protect public safety. Provincially, this power includes the ability to require a selected municipality to provide assistance to an emergency area (even if it is not within the emergency area).

4.0 Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP)

Under the PNERP, certain community facilities, such as centres to assist evacuated persons, are essential for fulfilling the emergency response mandate. These facilities are normally established in large institutions such as community centres, schools or colleges.

4.1 Municipal Roles & Responsibilities

“Designated municipalities” are those in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, which have been designated under the EMCPA, and are thus required to have a nuclear emergency response plan (see section 2.1 above).

The PNERP specifies designated municipal roles and responsibilities that must be addressed in their municipal nuclear emergency plans.

4.1.3 Designated municipalities acting in the capacity of “host municipalities” must provide in their municipal nuclear plans for the reception, care and shelter of people evacuated from their homes. Further, if the nature of the emergency is such that evacuees may have been exposed to a radioactive plume, these municipalities’ plans must also include provisions for accommodating the monitoring and decontamination function. Designated municipalities within the primary zones of the nuclear installations may also act in a host municipality capacity either for their own citizens or for citizens of a neighbouring jurisdiction.

4.1.4 “Support municipalities,” may be specified by Emergency Order and may be responsible for providing support and assistance to designated municipalities (see PNERP paragraph 1.8.4).

4.2 Reception Centres

4.2.1 Municipal nuclear emergency plans should provide for designated facilities that will be used for the reception, care and initial shelter of evacuees.

Because of the nature of the emergency, there may be occasion where monitoring for radioactive contamination and, if necessary, decontamination of evacuees will have to take place. This process may be accomplished in a reception centre that receives evacuees immediately upon leaving the emergency area or, may be set up separately.

A Reception Centre is the first destination for evacuees. It is organized to perform many of the following functions:

  • Registration & Inquiry
  • Allocation to Evacuee Centres
  • First Aid
  • Monitoring & Decontamination (co-location optional)

4.2.4 Host municipalities are expected to resource the Reception Centre facility for the first three functions listed in 4.2.3 above.

4.2.5 The nuclear installation (except in the case of Fermi 2) is responsible for Monitoring and Decontamination, i.e., providing equipment and core staff, training staff, and performing the task (pursuant to federal licensing requirements to provide offsite assistance).

4.2.6 Municipal nuclear emergency plans shall include details regarding the selection, staffing and resourcing of these facilities.

4.3 Evacuee Centres

4.3.1 Evacuee Centres are facilities set up by the designated (host) municipality to provide shelter, food, and other services to people who have been evacuated as a result of a nuclear emergency.

4.3.2 While it is expected that most people will find their own accommodation, lessons learned from major evacuations, including Hurricane Katrina (2005), indicate that 10-20% of the total number of evacuees may require accommodation to be provided to them.

4.3.3 Municipal nuclear emergency plans shall provide details regarding the selection, resourcing and staffing of facilities to be used as Evacuee Centres.

4.4 Emergency Worker Centres

4.4.1 Emergency Worker Centres are facilities set up to monitor and control exposure of emergency workers to radiation.

4.4.2 Emergency workers are defined as persons who are required to remain in or enter offsite areas affected or likely to be affected by radiation from an accident. They include police, firefighters, emergency medical services, personnel from the Canadian Forces, and other essential services.

4.4.3 Designated Municipalities’ nuclear emergency plans shall identify facilities for use as Emergency Worker Centres and how they will be managed.

4.4.4 In the event of a nuclear emergency, it is the responsibility of the nuclear operator (except Fermi 2) to set up and staff the monitoring and decontamination component of these centres, pursuant to federal licensing requirements to provide offsite assistance.

4.5 Monitoring & Decontamination

4.5.1 Nuclear

  1. Nuclear installations in Ontario have accepted responsibility for monitoring and decontamination of both evacuees and emergency workers. They are responsible for providing core staff and resources, and for staff training.
  2. Similarly, once the emergency functions have ceased to be necessary, the Ontario nuclear installation is responsible for restoring the monitoring and decontamination portion of any facility used, to its pre-emergency state.

4.5.2 Radiological

MOHLTC is responsible for coordinating the setting up of facilities to monitor and decontaminate the public.

4.6 Compensation

4.6.1 The Nuclear Liability Act (NLA) governs liability insurance conditions in Canada for nuclear emergencies. Under this legislation, operators of all designated nuclear facilities must maintain mandatory insurance with the Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada to cover third party liability.

4.6.2 The NLA provides a defined system of compensation for victims of nuclear accidents, the NLA providing compensation for injury, loss of life, loss of property, and damages resulting from loss of property or damage to property.

4.6.3 In the event of a small nuclear accident, victims could submit claims to the insurer, which could assess and pay claims on behalf of the operator.

4.6.4 In the event of a large nuclear accident, or where it is deemed in the public interest to do so, the federal cabinet could establish the Nuclear Damage Claims Commission (NDCC).

4.6.5 The Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing will work with Natural Resources Canada to determine financial disaster assistance and compensation arrangements in the event of a release of radioactivity.

.

Annex C - Public Education For Nuclear Emergencies

(Ref : Section 3.4.8)

1.0 Program Objective

1.1 The objective of a nuclear emergency public education program is to:

  • Inform those living and working within the Primary Zones of nuclear installations of the actions they should take to effectively protect themselves prior to, and in the event of, a nuclear emergency.
  • Inform agricultural producers out to the perimeter of the Secondary Zones of nuclear installations about the various ingestion control measures they may be required to implement in a nuclear emergency.

2.0 Program Requirement

2.1 A public education program shall be carried out in Ontario for the areas surrounding each nuclear installation (Annex A).

2.2 Public Education programs shall be coordinated by Emergency Management Ontario in close coordination with nuclear facilities and the designated municipalities.

2.3 Nuclear emergency public education program messages shall be consistent with the PNERP.

2.4 A subcommittee on nuclear emergency public education will be formed for the area surrounding each nuclear installation. One subcommittee will be formed for both the Pickering and Darlington Nuclear Generating Stations. The membership of the subcommittee will include, but is not limited to, representatives from the facility, the designated municipalities, the host municipalities and Emergency Management Ontario. The subcommittee will meet quarterly and report annually to the Nuclear Emergency Management Coordinating Committee.

2.5 The public education program for the area surrounding each nuclear installation will be documented as a strategic plan and supporting action plan and this documentation will be reviewed and updated annually.

2.6 These programs will ensure that key nuclear emergency public education messages reach program recipients with a regular frequency of at least once per year.

2.7 The nuclear emergency public education program will be ongoing throughout the year.

3.0 Responsibilities

3.1 Programs shall be designed and delivered through the committee structure outlined in section 2.4.

3.2 Municipal nuclear emergency plans shall make provisions for partnership with the Province and the nuclear installations in the development and delivery of education programs.

3.3 Nuclear installations, pursuant to federal licensing requirements for providing offsite assistance, will form partnerships with the province and designated municipalities in the development and delivery of public education programs.

4.0 Program Recipients

4.1 The main target audience of each program shall be the population living or working in the Primary Zone of the nuclear installation.

4.2 A secondary target audience shall be agricultural producers within the Secondary Zone of the nuclear installation.

4.3 Other appropriate target audiences (such as commercial, industrial, institutional and recreational populations) will be selected and provided for in the programs.

5.0 Program Content

5.1 The program shall emphasize that while it is unlikely that a nuclear emergency will occur in Ontario, being prepared in advance and knowing what actions to take will better protect the personal safety of Ontario residents.

5.2 The programs shall provide adequate information to the recipients to enable them to effectively protect themselves in a nuclear emergency. At minimum, this will include:

  1. The locations of the Primary Zone around each nuclear installation;
  2. The method by which the public will be notified of a nuclear emergency;
  3. The actions the public should take upon notification of a nuclear emergency;
  4. The protective actions the public could be advised to take in a nuclear emergency (e.g., shelter-in-place, evacuate, take KI pills);
  5. Where to get more information about general emergency preparedness actions the public can take to prepare for all emergencies (e.g., emergency survival kit); and
  6. The various ingestion control measures that agricultural producers may be required to implement in a nuclear emergency.

6.0 Program Delivery

6.1 The delivery of the program shall, as far as is reasonably possible, ensure that:

  • All those who should receive the program do in fact receive it.
  • Information provided is in an easily understandable form that is accessible to all members of the public.
  • Information is provided in a form that is easily accessible when needed.
  • Information provided is updated at least annually.
  • Newcomers into the target area, transients, and residents who have misplaced the information, can obtain fresh copies.
  • Periodic reminders of the information are issued.

7.0 Program Measurement

7.1 The effectiveness of the program’s delivery methods will be assessed and reviewed annually, with changes made as deemed necessary.

Annex D - Initial Notification and Response System for Nuclear Emergencies

(Ref : Paragraph 5.5)

1.0 Initial Notification

Initial notification for a nuclear emergency is defined as the notification made by the nuclear installation to designated offsite authorities whenever an event occurs or conditions arise, which require such notification under the prescribed criteria.

2.0 Purpose

The purpose of an initial notification is :

  1. to inform offsite authorities of the fact that a notifiable event or situation has occurred at the nuclear installation, and
  2. to provide an indication to the offsite authorities as to the appropriate initial offsite response.

3.0 Application

3.1 The initial notification systems for each nuclear site are prescribed in the relevant implementing plan.

3.2 The initial offsite response system prescribed herein is of general application (suitably modified for particular cases).

4.0 Outline of System

4.1 Whenever any of the notification criteria, as presented in the implementing plans, require it, the nuclear installation shall make a notification to the designated provincial and municipal contact points within 15 minutes of the requirement for notification being recognized.

4.2 The notification message from the nuclear installation shall include the category of notification. Where more than one criterion is applicable, the highest category triggered shall be reported in the notification. The notification message shall not be delayed to permit an accurate assessment of the applicable category.

4.3 Within 15 minutes of the receipt of the notification, the PEOC shall decide on the initial response level to be adopted. This level will normally be the one linked to the notification category received (as indicated in Appendix 1 to this Annex) unless another level is judged to be more appropriate.

4.4 The PEOC shall notify the designated municipality and other organizations as appropriate, as to the level of initial response. Contiguous states and provinces will only be notified of an Abnormal Incident notification or higher (see 5.0 below).

4.5 Up to four hours after the initial notification, if the assessment of the onsite situation changes to warrant a different category from the one initially notified, the nuclear installation shall immediately make a report to the provincial contact point of its new assessment.

4.6 Once ongoing reporting by the EOC of the nuclear installation to the Scientific Section of the PEOC is established, there is no longer any requirement for any change in the category or the assessment of the situation to be reported by the nuclear staff.

4.7 The PEOC can, at any time, direct that a change be made in the offsite response level that is in effect.

4.8 An initial notification made by a nuclear installation cannot be terminated or cancelled by it.

4.9 When appropriate, the offsite response following an initial notification shall be terminated by the PEOC, and all concerned informed. At that time any notifications made by the nuclear installation shall lapse.

5.0 Notification Categories and Associated Response

5.1 The triggering criteria for the notification categories used by the nuclear installations are given in the relevant implementing plans. The notification category and the normal (or “default”) initial offsite response for each is given in Appendix 1 to this Annex. A summary is shown below :

  • Reportable/Unusual Event : An event affecting the nuclear installation which would be of concern to the offsite authorities responsible for public safety.
  • Provincial and municipal duty staff will monitor the situation. [Routine Monitoring].
  • Abnormal Incident/Alert : An abnormal occurrence at the nuclear installation which may have a significant cause, and/or may lead to more serious consequences.
  • Provincial/municipal emergency response staff will normally monitor the situation from their operations centres. Other provincial and municipal staff are notified to remain available to report for duty. [Enhanced Monitoring].
  • Onsite/Site Area Emergency : A serious malfunction which results or may result in an atmospheric emission of radioactive material or is likely to result in an emission at a later time.
  • Response plans are either partially or fully activated, depending on the absence/presence of an ongoing or imminent emission. Provincial and municipal emergency operation centres are fully staffed. Municipal centres are set up and staffed as required. EIC and JTCC are set up and staffed to begin operation. Partial Activation/Full Activation.
  • General Emergency : An ongoing atmospheric emission of radioactive material, or one likely within a short time frame, as a result of a more severe accident.
  • Response plans and organizations are fully activated and, if necessary, appropriate protective measures are taken. Full Activation.

6.0 Implementation of Notification and Response System

The Chief, Emergency Management Ontario, shall issue any detailed instructions necessary in order to ensure that this notification and response system is effectively implemented. Provisions of this system shall also be reflected in the plans and procedures of the organizations with responsibilities under this plan (Annex I).

Appendix 1 to Annex D

Initial Provincial and Municipal Response Levels

Initial Provincial and Municipal Response Levels

Response Level

(and Associated

Category)

Provincial Response

Municipal Response

Emergency Information/ Emergency Bulletin/ Public Alerting

ROUTINE

MONITORING

(normally following a

REPORTABLE/UNUSUAL EVENT notification)

  1. Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) informs municipality (and others) of level of response to be adopted.
  2. PEOC monitors event.
  3. Scientific staff consulted, if appropriate.

Emergency response (ER) staff remain in touch with the PEOC, and monitor event.

If and when appropriate, the PEOC coordinates the issue of news release(s).

ENHANCED MONITORING

(normally following an

ABNORMAL INCIDENT/ALERT

notification)

  1. PEOC informs municipality (and others) of level of response to be adopted.
  2. PEOC monitors event.
  3. Scientific staff present in PEOC.
  4. Provincial EIS will coordinate news release.

ER staff monitor event, preferably from Municipal Emergency Operations Centre.

If and when appropriate, PEOC coordinates the issue of news release(s).

PARTIAL ACTIVATION

(normally following an

ONSITE/SITE AREA EMERGENCY

Notification with no ongoing/imminent emission)

  1. PEOC issues notification informing municipalities and others, of level of response.
  2. PEOC is fully staffed and monitors event.
  3. Provincial EIS set up and staffed.
  4. Ministry EOCs and Joint Traffic Control Centre (JTCC) set up and staffed as appropriate.
  1. Issue notification placing municipal ER organization on standby.
  2. Municipal EOC, EIC, and JTCC fully staffed and operational.
  3. Other emergency centres readied to become operational without undue delay.
  1. PEOC considers need to issue Emergency Bulletins.
  2. PEOC Emergency Information Section issues news release as soon as feasible.
  3. Follow-up news releases issued as and when appropriate.

FULL ACTIVATION

(may follow an ONSITE/SITE AREA EMERGENCY or a

GENERAL EMERGENCY notification)

  1. PEOC issues notification activating nuclear emergency response plans and organization.
  2. PEOC is fully staffed and monitors event.
  3. Provincial EIS set up and fully staffed.
  4. MEOCs, RAGs and JTCC set up and fully staffed.
  5. Immediate protective measures ordered, if appropriate.
  1. Issue notification activating municipal ER organization.
  2. Municipal EOC, EIC, JTCC and other centres activated and fully staffed and operational.
  3. Implement protective measures, if ordered by PEOC.
  1. If and when appropriate, PEOC directs initiation of public alerting.
  2. Municipality initiates public alerting if so directed, or if necessary.
  3. PEOC issues Emergency Bulletin.
  4. Immediate news release issued by the PEOC Emergency Information Section.

Initial Provincial and Municipal Response Levels

Annex E - Protective Action Levels (Pals)

(Ref : Section 2.7)

Exposure Control Measures

PROTECTIVE MEASURE

LOWER LEVEL

UPPER LEVEL

Dose

Effective

Dose

Thyroid

Dose

Effective

Dose

Thyroid

Dose

Sheltering

1 mSv

(0.1 rem)

10 mSv

(1 rem)

10 mSv

(1 rem)

100 mSv

(10 rem)

Evacuation

10 mSv

(1 rem)

100 mSv

(10 rem)

100 mSv

(10 rem)

1 Sv

(100 rem)

Thyroid Blocking

-

100 mSv

(10 rem)

-

1 Sv

(100 rem)

Exposure Control Measures

Radionuclide Concentration Level

Ingestion Control Measures

BANNING FOOD/WATER

CONSUMPTION

Cs-134, Cs-137

Ru-103, Ru-106,

Sr-89

I-131

Sr-90

Am-241, Pu-238

Pu-239, Pu-240

Pu-242

Foods for General

Consumption

1 kBq (27 nCi)

per kg

100 Bq (2.7 nCi)

per kg

10 Bq (270 pCi)

per kg

 

Milk, Infant Foods,

Drinking Water

1 kBq (27 nCi)

per kg

100 Bq (2.7 nCi)

per kg

1 Bq (27 pCi)

per kg

 

Ingestion Control Measures

Application

  1. The PALs for exposure control measures are expressed in terms of, and shall be related to, the highest projected dose likely to be received by the most exposed individual in the relevant critical group (see Glossary in Annex K, for definitions of these terms).
  2. PALs are expressed over the duration of significant releases.
  3. The PALs for ingestion control measures should be applied to food prepared for consumption. The PALs are to be applied to the sum of the activity levels for each radionuclide within a group. However, they are applied independently to each group. For example, if in a foodstuff the radiocesium is 50% of the permitted concentration while the quantity of rubidium (which is in the same group as cesium) is 60% of the permitted concentration, the item should be banned. However, an item containing 50% of the permitted concentration of radiocesium and 60% of the permitted concentration of Sr-90 (which is in a different group) would be acceptable. (Note: I-131 is grouped with radiocesium, etc. in the case of foods for general consumption, but is grouped with Sr-90 for infant food and water).

Notes

  1. The effective dose PALs above were adopted by the Province in 1984 upon the recommendation of Provincial Working Group # 3 and are generally consistent with Health Canada Intervention levels as published in Canadian Guidelines for Intervention During a Nuclear Emergency (2003). The latest authoritative international guidance on the subject confirms their continuing validity. (Cf. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for Safety of Radiation Sources, International Atomic Energy Agency. Safety Series No.115, 2004).
  2. The intervention levels recommended in the International Basic Safety Standards (IBSS) are in terms of avertable dose, whereas the Ontario PALs are in the form of projected dose. This difference is essentially academic since the PALs are used most often in decisions on protective measures taken prior to any radiation exposure, and hence are being compared to avertable dose. In most cases where radiation exposure is already occurring, it would neither be possible nor desirable to base protective action decisions on calculations involving PALs; instead, they would be based on pre-planned responses and conservative estimates. (See Operational Response Strategy, Chapter 6).
  3. It is necessary to express PALs in terms of projected dose in order to conform to the Plan principle that protective measures should avert (or at least reduce) risk resulting from radiation exposure. Thus, expressed as projected doses, PALs in essence represent levels of risk from potential exposure, which justify the initiation of various protective measures. The risk commences when radiation exposure begins, and not when the emergency management organization starts to use PALs to assess the need for protective measures. If this assessment occurs in some circumstances after radiation exposure has commenced, the use of PALs in the prescribed manner will fulfil the above principle adopted in this Plan.
  4. The PALs for exposure control measures are prescribed as a range for each protective measure because the decision on applying a protective measure is based not only on technical factors but also on operational and public policy considerations. To enable these considerations to be applied, it is appropriate to provide decision-makers with technical advice ranging between when a measure should be considered for application (on purely technical grounds) and when it becomes necessary on the same grounds. This span also allows for the fact that there are inherent uncertainties in the results of technical assessments.
  5. The factor of 10 used to obtain the thyroid dose equivalent to the effective dose is based on the assumption that non-fatal or curable cancers of the thyroid carry the same socio-economic impact as fatal thyroid cancers. This assumption is presumed to be valid in the context of public safety and the low dose (or risk) levels used in the PALs.
  6. The PALs for banning food and water consumption are consistent with International Atomic Energy Agency. Safety Series No. GS-R-2 ‘Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear and Radiological Emergency’ (2002), and the Canadian Guidelines for the Restriction of Radioactively Contaminated Food and Water Following a Nuclear Emergency: Guidelines and Rationale, Health Canada (2000).

Annex F - Personal Monitoring

(Ref : Section 5.12)

1.0 Applicability

This strategy applies to the personal monitoring of members of the public during the response to a nuclear reactor emergency or to a radiological emergency where contamination has occurred.

2.0 General

1.1 Personal monitoring refers to the use of radiation monitoring devices to assess whether persons and their belongings, including vehicles, are contaminated with radioactive material or not, and if contaminated, the type and level of contamination.

1.2 This contamination would be caused by particulate radioactive material released from a nuclear facility as the result of an accident, or as a result of some radiological incidents.

1.3 Certain nuclear installations have filtered air discharge system (FADS) through which post-accident emissions are routed. If the FADS work as designed, the degree of contamination caused offsite would be very limited, possibly even negligible.

1.4 Personal monitoring of members of the public, when required, can be carried out at a Monitoring & Decontamination Unit (MDU) where these have been set up.

3.0 Basic Considerations

The contamination received by persons exposed to an unfiltered emission will depend on their distance from the source; the farther away they are, the less contamination they will receive. An exception could be caused by precipitation over and through the plume, which could result in contamination being deposited.

4.0 Responsibilities

4.1 Provincial Emergency Operations Centre

  1. Directions shall be issued regarding the need for personal monitoring (as per section 5.0 below).
  2. Evacuees shall be directed to either undertake personal decontamination or, to report to an MDU for this purpose.

4.2 Designated Municipality

  1. Designated municipalities (in their capacity as host municipalities) will be responsible for arranging the necessary space and facilities for the accommodation of a Monitoring & Decontamination Unit (MDU).
  2. Where MDUs are located within Reception Centres, the Municipal Nuclear Emergency Plans shall include provisions to ensure:
  • that the Reception Centre procedures and the MDU procedures are coordinated so as to ensure effective and expeditious processing of evacuees;
  • municipal appointment of the Manager of the Reception Centre who shall, during an emergency, have overall responsibility for the efficient functioning of the Reception Centre.

4.3 MOHLTC/Nuclear Installation

  1. The MOHLTC Radiation Health Response Plan describes the scenarios in which the setting up of personal monitoring and decontamination systems should be considered in the event of a radiological emergency.
  2. The nuclear installation is responsible for setting up a personal monitoring and decontamination system in the event of a nuclear emergency.
  3. Plans of the above organizations shall:
  • be coordinated to ensure compatibility and mutual support;
  • ensure that a personal monitoring and decontamination system meets the requirements specified in this annex;
  • ensure that adequate resources are in place to monitor and decontaminate the affected population, as far as possible.

5.0 Selection of Evacuees for Monitoring

5.1 Given below is guidance which may be used in selecting which persons out of those being evacuated under a particular scenario should be monitored for contamination.

5.2 If it is estimated that the evacuees will clear the affected area before an emission occurs, they will not be directed to report to an MDU for monitoring and decontamination.

5.3 If evacuees cannot clear the affected area before an emission occurs, they may be directed to proceed for monitoring and decontamination:

  1. In the case of a filtered emission from a nuclear installation, evacuees from affected sectors in the Contiguous Zone and Middle Ring only who do not clear the Primary Zone before the emission occurs may be directed to report to an MDU, if appropriate. Evacuees from affected sectors in the Outer Ring should be instructed to carry out, after evacuating, basic self-decontamination of their bodies, equipment and vehicles;
  2. In the case of an unfiltered emission from a nuclear installation, evacuees from all affected sectors who do not clear the Primary Zone before the emission occurs should be directed to report to an MDU, if available. Otherwise they should be instructed to carry out self-decontaminations, per (a) above. Follow-up monitoring should be provided.
  3. Certain special cases are considered in Section 6.0 below.

6.0 Special Cases

6.1 Motorists passing through the affected area and exposed to an emission may be directed (through appropriate broadcasts) to report for monitoring.

5.4 Any train passing through the affected area and exposed to an emission may be directed to stop at an appropriate station to enable monitoring of passengers.

5.5 Marine craft in the affected area shall be treated on the same basis as evacuees under section 5.3 above. When so required under these criteria, marine craft may be directed to report to an appropriate harbour/landing to proceed for monitoring.

5.6 Where MDUs are not available or, where the population density is such that all evacuees could not be processed in a reasonable amount of time, evacuees will be directed to proceed to a destination of their choosing and to self-decontaminate.

5.7 Federal authorities will be consulted in regards to marine, air and rail travel.

Annex G - Venting of Containment - Nuclear Emergencies

(Ref : Section 5.16)

1.0 General

1.1 The nuclear stations at Pickering, Bruce and Darlington are equipped with sub-atmospheric containment systems designed to hold up, for some time, radioactive material released from failed nuclear fuel in an accident.

1.2 In some reactor accidents, released radioactive materials may be drawn into the vacuum building. The normal procedure approved by the CNSC and followed by these nuclear stations is to commence venting through the filtered air discharge system shortly before the vacuum building repressurizes to atmospheric pressure, and to continue this at a rate just sufficient to keep containment sub-atmospheric.

1.3 In the case of other, less severe upsets, the vacuum building will not necessarily be activated. The released radioactivity will then be confined to other parts of the containment system, from which it will normally be vented through systems other than the filtered air discharge system, such as the contaminated exhaust stack, which contains equipment capable of removing most of the tritium from the exhaust.

2.0 Aim of Venting Strategy

The ability to control (within certain limits) the venting of radioactivity from containment systems could be a useful way to avoid, as far as is achievable, much of the releases of radioactivity over populated areas and should be considered, as appropriate, before the release takes place. Any decision to use a venting procedure other than the nominal procedure outlined in paragraph 1.2 above should be taken only following discussion, consultation and agreement among the province, the CNSC, Health Canada, the nuclear installation and the affected municipality(ies).

3.0 Applicability

The considerations herein are applicable to the venting of radioactive material from the containment systems at the Pickering, Bruce and Darlington nuclear stations, following an Onsite or General Emergency notification.

4.0 Advance Preparations

The following preparations should be carried out in advance to permit appropriate venting decisions to be made at the time of the incident:

  1. Arrangements should be made to restrict marine traffic on certain parts of the Great Lakes, if necessary, when venting over them.
  2. Appropriate procedures should be developed which would enable timely decisions to be made while taking due account of all relevant factors.

5.0 Venting of Containment

2.1 The following ancillary measures should also be considered:

  1. If warranted, institute the appropriate protective measures in any populated area before venting is carried out which could affect that area. The population in this area as well as the community/municipal emergency response organization must also be notified in advance of such venting.
  2. Implementing the appropriate measures should be taken to notify and protect air traffic, marine traffic and boaters on the adjacent Great Lake before venting is carried out.
  3. Consultation by the Federal Government with the affected jurisdictions in the United States.

Annex H - Emergency Worker Safety

(Ref : Section 5.13)

  • Appendix 1 - Guidelines For Assigning Sector Safety Status in A Nuclear Emergency
  • Appendix 2 - Precautionary Measures For Each Safety Status in A Nuclear Emergency
  • Appendix 3 - Regulated Effective Doses – Radiological Emergency

Appendix 1 to ANNEX H

Emergency Worker Safety Guidelines For Assigning Sector Safety Status in A Nuclear Emergency

Emergency Worker Safety Guidelines For Assigning Sector Safety Status in A Nuclear Emergency

Safety Status

Projected Dose Rate*

Red

> 5 mSv (0.5 rem) per hour

Orange

> Background to 5 mSv (0.5 rem) per hour

Green

≤ Background

Emergency Worker Safety Guidelines For Assigning Sector Safety Status in A Nuclear Emergency

* This projection shall be made for the period for which the Safety Status is to remain valid.

Appendix 2 to Annex H

Emergency Worker Safety For A Nuclear Emergency

Safety Status

Precautionary Measures

RED

Emergency workers shall report to the Emergency Worker Centre (EWC) before entering the sector.

They shall enter the sector accompanied by a qualified escort provided by the nuclear installation and shall carry personal monitoring devices. They shall observe any precautions prescribed by the EWC.

Dosimeters should be checked every 30 minutes. Workers shall exit from the sector if the reading reaches 40 mSv (4 rem), or any lower personal limit prescribed by the EWC.

If duties permit, workers shall remain under shelter or inside a vehicle. If working outside, workers should wear an outer garment such as a plastic raincoat.

Stay in the sector shall be limited to one hour, or the time prescribed by the EWC.

On leaving the sector, emergency workers shall again report to the EWC.

Pregnant workers shall not enter the sector.

ORANGE

Emergency workers shall report to the Emergency Worker Centre (EWC) before entering the sector. [Except those who are covered by paragraph 6.7.8 (c) (v)].

Emergency workers shall carry personal monitoring devices and shall observe any precautions prescribed by the EWC.

Dosimeters should be checked every hour. Workers shall exit from the sector if the reading reaches 40 mSv (4rem), or any lower personal limit prescribed by the EWC.

If duties permit, workers shall remain under shelter or inside a vehicle. If working outside, workers should wear an outer garment such as a plastic raincoat.

Stay in the sector shall be limited to 4 hours, or the time prescribed by the EWC.

On leaving the sector, emergency workers shall again report to the EWC.

Pregnant workers shall not enter the sector.

GREEN

No precautions necessary. No limit on stay period.

Emergency Worker Safety For A Nuclear Emergency

Appendix 3 to Annex H

Emergency Worker Safety For A Radiological Emergency

Worker

Non-emergency

Emergency

Member of the Public

(including emergency workers)

1 mSv / year

(0.1 rem / year)

500 mSv**

(50 rem)

Nuclear Energy Worker

50 mSv / year

(5 rem / year)

100 mSv / 5 years

10 rem / 5 years

500 mSv**

(50 rem)

Emergency Worker Safety For A Radiological Emergency

Regulated Effective Doses*

  • * Nuclear Safety & Control Act, Radiation Protection Regulations, CNSC, May 2000.
  • ** Maximum Dose allowed; no limit for a person who acts voluntarily to save or protect human life (such response actions should only be taken with an understanding of the potential acute effects of radiation to the exposed responder and based on the determination that the benefits of the action clearly exceed the associated risks).

Annex I - Responsibilities of Organizations

(Ref: Section 1.9)

Responsibilities of organizations for nuclear/radiological emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan are designated in the following appendixes:

Provincial Responsibilities

  • Appendix 1 - Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Appendix 2 - Attorney General
  • Appendix3 - Minister of Community and Social Services
  • Appendix 4 - Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services
  • Appendix 5 - Minister of Energy and Infrastructure
  • Appendix 6 - Minister of the Environment
  • Appendix 7 - Minister of Health and Long-Term Care
  • Appendix 8 - Minister of Labour
  • Appendix 9 - Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing
  • Appendix 10 - Minister of Natural Resources
  • Appendix 11 - Minister of Northern Development and Mines
  • Appendix 12 - Minister of Transportation

Nuclear Facilities and Municipalities Responsibilities

  • Appendix 13 - Nuclear Installations
  • Appendix 14 - Nuclear Establishments
  • Appendix 15 - Designated Municipalities (in nuclear installation Primary Zone)
  • Appendix 16 - Designated Municipalities (acting as Host Municipality)

Federal Responsibilities

  • Appendix 17 - Health Canada
  • Appendix 18 - Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
  • Appendix 19 - Public Safety Canada

Appendix 1 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Agriculture Food, and Rural Affairs

The Minister, having the support of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, has formulated an emergency plan pursuant to section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E. 9, as amended, and it associated Order in Council, O.C. 1492/2005. To the extent that the circumstances in a nuclear emergency may permit, the Ministry will endeavour to:

Preparedness

  1. Assist in the development and implementation of a public education program for farmers and food processors prior to a nuclear emergency;
  2. Prepare plans together with the CFIA to provide information and advice to farmers and food processors in the Primary Zone of each designated nuclear installation (Annex A) for the initial stages of an emergency prior to the same. This includes the preparation of advisories covering different situations;
  3. Before a nuclear emergency, plan and prepare ingestion control measures in the Primary Zone of each designated nuclear installation as a protective measure prior to a release to minimize the radiation hazard (Annex A). This should include arrangements for clearing milk storages of dairy farms in the Primary Zone at the first practicable opportunity following a nuclear emergency;
  4. Before a nuclear emergency, participate in the preparation of plans/procedures for General Province – Wide Monitoring and for nuclear and/or radiological emergencies;
  5. Before a nuclear emergency, prepare operating procedures for the Ministry Action Group, and making necessary organizational and administrative arrangements to enable it to carry out its functions;
  6. Before a nuclear emergency, maintain an information database relating to agricultural and food facilities, producers, marketing organizations, etc. for use in nuclear and radiological emergency planning and management. The nuclear data will be organized to allow access to information for the Primary Zone and each sub zones of the Secondary Zone around each designated nuclear installation (Annex A);

Provision of Personnel

  1. Recommend suitable Ministry personnel for staffing various positions in the province's emergency management organization, including the Assurance Monitoring and General Province-Wide Monitoring Groups;

Response

  1. Act as the main Ministry through which food (excluding water) ingestion control operations will be conducted by the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency;
  2. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency;
  3. Carry out a sampling program and other assigned actions required under the Assurance Monitoring and the General Province-Wide Monitoring Plans at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency;
  4. Liaise with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and CFIA at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency to assist in securing agricultural commodities, such as animal feed to affected areas;
  5. Generally, carry out the responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5 at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency;

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear and radiological emergency training and exercises; and
  2. ensure appropriate training of Ministry staff involved in the Assurance Monitoring and General Province-Wide Monitoring Group.

Appendix 2 to Annex I

Responsibilities

The Attorney General Ministry of The Attorney General (MAG)

In the event of a provincial nuclear emergency, the Minister, together with the Ministry and its agencies, boards and commissions, will execute its emergency response plan and will have the following responsibilities consistent with the responsibilities under the Ministry of the Attorney General Act and its specifically assigned OIC responsibilities issued pursuant to the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

  1. Support the Attorney General’s mandate and role as Chief Law Officer of the Crown and member of the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management;.
  2. Ensure that the administration of Ontario’s public affairs is in accordance with the law.
  3. Advise Government upon all matters of law referred to it including the constitutionality and legality of emergency response emergency issues.
  4. Superintend all Government legislative matters.
  5. Ensure the administration of the courts in partnership with the constitutionally independent judiciary and superintend all matters connected with judicial offices.
  6. Conduct all Provincial Crown prosecutions.
  7. Conduct and regulate all litigation for and against the Crown or any ministry or agency of Government in respect of any subject within the authority or jurisdiction of the Legislature.
  8. Represent the personal and property rights and obligations of children in the civil justice system.
  9. Provide court-based assistance services to the most vulnerable victims and witnesses of crime.
  10. Provide guardianship services to vulnerable and/or incapable adults.
  11. Provide legislative drafting services to Ministers of the Crown, Members of the Legislature and applicants for private bills and drafting services for regulations.
  12. 12. Coordinate the response to legal issues that arise

Appendix 3 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Community and Social Services

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Participate in emergency social services planning for emergencies at designated nuclear installations (Annex A).
  2. Ensure that the Ministry has plans in place to assist the designated municipalities (Annex A) during an emergency in the areas of emergency shelter, food and clothing, registration and inquiry and personal services, when a provincial response is required.
  3. Ensure that 24/7 institutions operated by the Ministry and lying within the Primary Zone of designated nuclear installations (Annex A) make plans for implementing the various protective measures.
  4. Liaise with non-governmental emergency social service organizations, including the Red Cross, on their role in a nuclear and radiological emergency.
  5. Prepare operating procedures for the Ministry Action Group, and make the necessary organizational and administrative arrangements for the establishment of the Ministry Action Group to enable it to carry out its functions.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide suitable Ministry representatives, when requested, to assist in relevant operations within the PEOC.

Response

  1. Activate the Ministry Action Group in the Ministry to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the PEOC.
  2. Act as the link, as required, between the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre and emergency social service organizations such as the Red Cross.
  3. Assist affected municipalities in the delivery of emergency social services, including emergency shelter, food and clothing, registration and inquiry and personal services when their capacity is exceeded and a provincial response is required.
  4. Coordinate the activation and operation of a provincial registration and inquiry process.
  5. Generally, carry out the responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear and radiological emergency training and exercises.

Appendix 4 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Emergency Management Ontario shall:

Preparedness:

  1. Review the PNERP at least every 4 years.
  2. Administer the PNERP and oversee its implementation.
  3. Monitor, coordinate and assist in the development of the nuclear emergency response programs of provincial ministries (and agencies, boards and commissions), nuclear facilities and designated and host municipalities.
  4. Issue, or arrange for the issue of, procedures and other documents needed to ensure effective implementation of the PNERP.
  5. Ensure the establishment of an adequate alerting, notification and response system for nuclear emergencies.
  6. Ensure that the infrastructure required to implement the PNERP is available and is kept in operational readiness.
  7. Establish the preparedness committee structure prescribed in Chapter 3 to ensure that it functions effectively.
  8. Ensure that the planning database required to implement the PNERP is available and is kept up-to-date.
  9. Monitor and assess the operational readiness and effectiveness of all elements of the emergency response organization, including those of municipalities, provincial ministries and agencies, nuclear facilities and facility operators, and make recommendations for improvement, where necessary.
  10. Coordinate the development and implementation of the public education program for populations likely to be affected by a nuclear emergency.
  11. Ensures the continuity of government services through the Business Continuity Planning Program which requires ministries to develop Business Continuity Plans (BCP) to ensure the delivery of time-critical services to the public.
  12. Review the ongoing maintenance and progress of ministries’ BCP development including incorporating lessons learned from exercise participation.
  13. Ensure the Divisions/Branches of the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services coordinate and make plans, and preparations for implementing any protective measure ordered during a nuclear emergency in any of its facilities and/or operations situated inside the Primary Zone of a designated nuclear installation (Annex A) and for those that may be affected by a radiological emergency.
  14. Ensure suitable ministry representatives are recommended to fill required positions in the emergency management organization.

Response:

  1. Ensure that the PEOC spearheads and coordinates the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Provide recommendations to the government regarding declaration and termination of an emergency.
  2. Provide continuity of provincial government services.
  3. Activate mechanisms, as applicable, to coordinate response activities related to the continuity of government services.
  4. Provide information to CCEM/Cabinet Office regarding the provincial activities related to emergency response and continuity of government services during an emergency.
  5. Work with Ministry Action Groups to assist in the emergency response and continuity of government services.

Administration

  1. Provide administrative support to the committees set up under this Plan (Chapter 3).

Study and Research

  1. Arrange for studies and research to be carried out in the area of nuclear emergency effects, planning, management and response.
  2. Remain abreast of the "state of the art and science" in this area.

Training and Exercises

  1. Prepare and issue a training and exercise program for the whole emergency management organization.
  2. Conduct the assigned training and exercises as required under the program (including for nuclear/radiological emergencies).
  3. Monitor and assess the training of all elements of the emergency management organization, including those belonging to municipalities and provincial ministries and agencies.
  4. Ensure ministry staff nominated to various elements of the emergency management organization participates in their training.
  5. Coordinate the participation of the MCSCS Ministry Action Group (MAG) primary and/or alternate members in all required nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.

OPP:

Preparedness:

  1. Ensure that it maintains appropriate plans and preparations to carry out its operational role in a nuclear emergency, including participation in the development of Joint Traffic Control Plans.

Response:

  1. Ensure the provision of assistance and resources in support of the emergency response, and as required by Joint Traffic Control Plans made under this Plan.

Training & Exercises:

  1. Ensure participation by all required staff in nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.

On behalf of the Ministry or the Province, Communications Branch shall:

Preparedness:

  1. Develop and maintain a Provincial Emergency Information Plan.
  2. Develop plans and procedures to assist designated municipalities in the coordination of emergency information in the event of a nuclear emergency.
  3. Develop plans and procedures to assist any municipality that may have to respond to a radiological emergency to coordinate emergency information.

Response:

  1. Direct and support emergency information activities in the PEOC during a nuclear or radiological emergency.
  2. Ensure that all ministry emergency information is coordinated during an emergency response.
  3. Ensure, as far as possible, the coordination of emergency information being released by all jurisdictional levels involved in the emergency response.
  4. Assist municipalities in their emergency information operations during an emergency response to help ensure that all emergency information is being handled in a timely, consistent and accurate manner.
  5. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency

Training & Exercises:

  1. Ensure participation by all required staff in nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.

Appendix 5 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Energy and Infrastructure

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Assist the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services in ensuring that the corporate head offices of designated nuclear installations (Annex A) carry out the responsibilities assigned to them (Appendix 14, Annex I).
  2. Ensure that the Ontario Electricity Emergency Response Plan is consistent with the PNERP. This shall be done through the Independent Electricity Systems Operator which shall co-ordinate the preparation and implementation of electricity emergency plans to mitigate the impact of a nuclear emergency on the reliability of electricity supply.
  3. Develop operating procedures for the Ministry Action Group current with the PEOC’s notification protocol to ensure that the Minister of Energy and Infrastructure is kept fully informed of all aspects of the provincial response to a nuclear emergency, including the actions being taken by the operator of the nuclear facility, the CNSC, EMO, and others to ensure public health and safety.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide suitable Ministry representatives to serve in the Operations Section of the PEOC. If requested, also recommend suitable Ministry personnel for staffing positions in the province’s emergency management organization.

Response

  1. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions consistent with those of the PEOC, to provide advice to the PEOC, and to keep the Minister informed of emergency information on a regular and timely basis;
  2. Maintain liaison with the Independent Electricity Systems Operator as required to address matters affecting electricity supply;
  3. Respond to specific requests from the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services in the course of meeting Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure’s Order in Council – specified responsibility as a result of an emergency at a nuclear generating station.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear and radiological emergency training and exercises that simulate impacts on electricity supply.
  2. Ministry staff nominated to various elements of the emergency management organization shall participate in the associated training

Appendix 6 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of the Environment

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Prepare and maintain an Annex to the Ministry’s Emergency Response Plan to guide Ministry actions under PNERP including the activation of a Ministry Action Group to direct Ministry response activities.
  2. Develop Ministry procedures for carrying out the collection and delivery of samples, and other assigned actions, as required under the General Province-Wide Monitoring Plan.
  3. Assist the Ministry of Labour in maintaining an environmental radiation database.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide suitable Ministry personnel for staffing various positions in the province's emergency management organization including the Operations Section, Scientific Section and Assurance Monitoring Group.

Response

  1. Activate a Ministry Action Group (MAG) when the PNERP is activated. Under overall direction from the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC), the MAG will direct and coordinate the Ministry’s response to ensure the Ministry is able to:
  • Provide meteorological and hydrological support to the PEOC,
  • Identify drinking water supplies and systems by sub-zones in any affected zone as required, and
  • Implement water control measures in consultation with the Local Medical Officer(s) of Health and drinking water system operators.

The MAG will also keep the Minister of the Environment informed of actions taken.

  1. Carry out the sampling program and other assigned activities required under the General Province-Wide Monitoring Plan as may be directed by the Assurance Monitoring Group.
  2. During restoration operations, provide technical advice to assist in re-establishing affected water supplies.
  3. Generally, carry out any other responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5 of the PNERP.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.
  2. Ensure Ministry staff who participate in various elements of the nuclear emergency management organization participate in relevant training sessions.

Study and Research

  1. Assist in studies and research on meteorology and hydrology as applicable to nuclear/radiological emergencies, especially in the fields of meteorological and radionuclide dispersion forecasting.

Appendix 7 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Health and Long-Term Care

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Undertake, assist in and oversee the preparations necessary to ensure the effective implementation of the Radiation Health Response Plan.
  2. Prepare operating procedures for the Ministry Action Group, and make necessary organizational and administrative arrangements for the establishment of the Group to enable it to carry out its functions.
  3. Advise and assist Medical Officer of Health (MOH) and the designated municipalities (Annex A) in making emergency plans and arrangements for their areas including stocking, distribution and administration of KI and for implementing protective measures for the public.
  4. Procure KI pills for the Town of Amherstburg for control and distribution by the local MOH.
  5. Provide guidelines for handling of persons exposed to high levels of radiation as outlined in the Radiation Health Response Plan .

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide suitable Ministry representatives to serve in the Planning, Operations and Scientific Sections of the PEOC as available and as appropriate. If requested, also recommend suitable Ministry personnel for staffing positions in the province’s emergency management organization.

Response

  1. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions and areas of responsibility under the direction of the PEOC.
  2. Carry out operational coordination of health services in an emergency, under the general direction of the PEOC.
  3. Support the process and procedures as outlined in the Radiation Health Response Plan as appropriate in a nuclear and/or radiological emergency and as directed by the Chief Medical Officer of Health in conjunction with the PEOC.
  4. Provide advice to local authorities regarding the need to implement thyroid blocking and other protective measures, to be taken by the public to protect public health, and take appropriate related actions.
  5. During restoration operations oversee the required arrangements for follow-up medical monitoring, care and rehabilitation for those with significant irradiation exposure.
  6. Generally, carry out the responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear and radiological emergency training and exercises.
  2. Provide guidance regarding training for health care personnel and institutions as outlined in the Radiation Health Response Plan.
  3. Ministry staff nominated to various elements of the emergency management organization shall participate in their training

Appendix 8 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Labour

The Minister, has the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Prepare and maintain plans for carrying out the tasks assigned to the Assurance Monitoring Group and General Province-Wide Monitoring Group in the PNERP.
  2. Prepare and maintain the appropriate notification lists, operating procedures, and technical manuals for the groups indicated above.
  3. Maintain an environmental radiation database.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Recommend suitable Ministry personnel for staffing various positions in the province's emergency management organization, including qualified personnel for the Scientific Section of the PEOC.

Response

  1. The Minister of Labour will ensure that employers meet their obligations under the Occupational Health and Safety Act during a nuclear emergency.
  2. Provide or arrange the required radioanalysis to support the PNERP.
  3. Carry out the radiation monitoring activities required under this plan.
  4. If requested, provide technical assistance to the emergency response organization dealing with a nuclear/radiological emergency not being dealt with under this Plan (paragraph 1.2.3).
  5. Monitor radioactivity in the environment around all nuclear installations in Ontario and notify the PEOC of any abnormal (above ambient background) results.
  6. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency
  7. Generally, carry out the responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.
  2. Arrange appropriate training of MOL staff involved in the scientific section of the PEOC .
  3. Provide administrative support for radiation monitoring during planning, training or emergency operations.
  4. Audit Emergency Worker Centres for compliance with the Occupational Health and Safety Act.
  5. Audit radiation safety training programs (for compliance with the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) provided to first responders and emergency workers, as appropriate.
  6. Audit designated nuclear response hospitals for compliance with the Act and Regulations for Healthcare and Residential Facilities with attention to worker protection and training under the Radiation Health Response Plan (MOHLTC).

Infrastructure

  1. Provide or arrange laboratory facilities for radio analysis of samples of air, water, soil, herbage, milk, foodstuffs, etc.
  2. Equip, maintain and operate an adequate network of fixed radiological monitoring sites in the Ontario portions of Secondary Zones.

Study and Research

  1. Participate in studies and intercomparisons in the area of radiation monitoring and analysis.

Appendix 9 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Provision of Extraordinary Financial Assistance

Throughout the emergency and recovery period, the Ministry will coordinate provincial expenditures associated with the province’s response to the emergency.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide suitable Ministry representatives to serve in the Operations Section of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre. If requested, also recommend suitable Ministry personnel for staffing positions in the province’s emergency management organization.

Response

  1. If called upon to do so, support the provision of shelter and accommodation for evacuated people who cannot return to their homes for some time due to radiological contamination, etc., by supporting:
  1. Municipalities, in providing short and long term shelter and housing, Ministry of Community and Social Services, having the lead role in arranging emergency shelter.
  2. The provision of advice to assist in the determination of appropriate options for longer term emergency housing, when required.
  1. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency.

Exercises and Training

  1. Participate in nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.

Appendix 10 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Natural Resources

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Establish procedures to notify and evacuate Provincial Parks and Conservation Areas that lie within the Primary Zones of the designated nuclear installations (Annex A).
  2. Accord priority to mapping and air photography requirements for nuclear emergency planning and management.
  3. Provide maps and topographical data as required.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Recommend suitable Ministry personnel for staffing various positions in the province's emergency management organization.

Response

  1. Carry out the notification, evacuation and closing of any of the parks etc. mentioned in paragraph 1 above when so ordered by the PEOC, or if required by this Plan.
  2. Provide aircraft, telecommunications, and other resources, if required by the PEOC.
  3. Generally, carry out the responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5.
  4. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear/radiological emergency training and exercises.

Appendix 11 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Northern Development and Mines (MNDM)

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

  1. Execute the ministry emergency response plan, which could include among other things the actions outlined below.
  2. Support emergency response operations in Northern Ontario, whether coordinated by the PEOC or another ministry that has been assigned lead responsibility.
  3. Provide intelligence, including geo-science information and data, to the PEOC and other ministries, as appropriate.
  4. Assist in communicating information and government messages to northern communities.
  5. Assist with communications between local emergency response units, the PEOC and other ministries, as appropriate.
  6. Provide personnel, equipment and material to support emergency response operations in Northern Ontario, as required and available.
  7. Provide scientific information on geology in the PEOC, including geological factors on a local to regional scale that affect earthquakes, natural concentrations of metal concentrations, sources of groundwater, buffering capacity of rocks and near surface on geological materials.
  8. Provide emergency inorganic material analysis, supervise the design and quality assessment of 3rd party laboratory tests of inorganic materials, and other laboratory support services to local authorities or the PEOC.
  9. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency.
  10. Provide expert scientific information on the nature of the surficial materials and their geochemistry to help determine impact on groundwater, anthropogenic or natural sources of possible inorganic elements contaminants, or transport and migration of groundwater and inorganic elements contaminants through the near surface and subsurface geological environment.
  11. Supervise the application of 3rd party remote sensed (geophysical) techniques capable of detecting location of contaminated groundwater, hydrocarbon leaks, and weak, water-filled faults subject to earthquakes, and distribution of radioactive plumes (natural, reactor or "dirty bomb"-related).

Appendix 12 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Minister of Transportation

The Minister, together with the agencies, boards and commissions operating to assist the Ministry, have the following responsibilities consistent with the planning responsibilities assigned by Order in Council under Section 6 of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

Preparedness

  1. Assist in developing evacuation plans for nuclear emergencies, in consultation and association with MCSCS (OPP).
  2. Provide personnel for the JTCC planning phase to oversee the development and maintenance of the applicable Joint Traffic Control Plans.
  3. Prepare operating procedures for the Ministry Action Group, and make the necessary organizational and administrative arrangements for the establishment of the Group to enable it to carry out its functions.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Recommend suitable personnel for staffing various positions in the province’s emergency management organization.

Response

  1. Establish a Ministry Action Group to direct and coordinate Ministry actions under the direction of the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre at the first practicable occasion following a nuclear emergency.
  2. Provide assistance and resources for response as directed by PEOC, and as required by the Joint Traffic Control Plan.
  3. Inform the PEOC immediately upon the closing of any provincial roads which might be earmarked as evacuation routes, and suggest alternatives.
  4. If required by the PEOC, the Ministry will arrange for route clearance, road maintenance, diversions, etc. on Provincial roads.
  5. Assist in recovery, if required.
  6. Generally, carry out the responsibilities prescribed in Chapter 5.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in nuclear / radiological emergency training and exercises.

Infrastructure

  1. Accord priority to maintaining and keeping open provincial highways (if possible), earmarked as evacuation routes and diversion in the Joint Traffic Control Plan.

Study and Research

  1. Assist in studies on the evacuation of areas and the movement of traffic around designated nuclear installations (Annex A).

Appendix 13 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Nuclear Installations

Pursuant to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and section 6 of the Regulations for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities and/or based upon agreements made with the Province, nuclear installations have the following responsibilities:

  1. (Note: The nuclear installations are listed in Annex A.
  2. Because of its special circumstances, the method of carrying out the assigned responsibilities by Fermi 2 shall be subject to negotiation and agreement between the province (Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services) and the installation.

Preparedness

  1. Set up and maintain the organization, equipment and procedures necessary to meet the functions and responsibilities assigned to them under the PNERP.
  2. Assist the province and the designated municipalities in their planning and preparedness for a nuclear emergency.
  3. Assist in the development and implementation of the public education program (Annex C).

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide suitable personnel for staffing various positions in the province’s emergency management organization, as identified in Chapter 4 and in implementing plans and procedures.
  2. Provide corporate liaison representatives to join the PEOC and the Planning Group, when established.

Response

  1. Carry out the responsibilities assigned in the PNERP.
  2. Provide personnel and resources for offsite personal monitoring as well as field monitoring services as specified in this PNERP and in the Implementing Plans and procedures.
  3. Provide a radiation monitoring service to the Environmental Radiation Monitoring Group.
  4. Pickering, Bruce and Darlington: Carry out post-accident venting of containment according to the guidance contained in Annex I.
  5. Assist the province and the designated municipalities in dealing with the emergency.

Training and Exercises

  1. Ensure that its personnel required to perform any of the tasks within its responsibilities are suitably trained.
  2. Assist the province and designated municipalities in the development and acquisition of training aids, as appropriate.
  3. Implement and participate in nuclear emergency training and exercises.
  4. Where appropriate, arrange and/or participate in emergency response exercises with the local public safety authorities or municipal response organization.

Infrastructure

  1. Provide and maintain reliable telecommunication links for the installation and specified offsite centres.
  2. Provide resources for and assist the designated municipalities to set up and maintain a public alerting system pursuant to this PNERP.
  3. Provide and maintain the equipment and facilities required to carry out the responsibilities assigned to them under this Plan and its implementing documents.

Study and Research

  1. Carry out and sponsor studies on risk abatement, risk assessment, and the enhancement of onsite and offsite safety, as agreed.
  2. Assist the province in carrying out studies to enhance public safety during nuclear emergencies.

Appendix 14 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Nuclear Establishments

(Pursuant to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and its regulations and/or based upon agreements made with the province)

Preparedness

  1. Prepare emergency plans/procedures for carrying out the responsibilities assigned to them under their licences.
  2. Establish liaison and make arrangements with the local public safety authorities for notifying them, when necessary.

Response

  1. Notify the local public safety authorities whenever there is an actual or potential hazard to public health and property from radiation or radioactive material originating from or belonging to the facility.
  2. Carry out all necessary measures onsite to contain and nullify the hazard.
  3. Assist the public safety authorities in containing and neutralizing the hazard offsite.

Appendix 15 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Designated Municipalities

(in nuclear installation Primary Zones)

Municipalities designated pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMPCA as municipalities in nuclear primary zones have the following responsibilities:

Preparedness

Prepare a municipal plan for dealing with nuclear emergencies, based on and in conformity wth the PNERP. This municipal plan shall include:

  1. Establishment of a municipal contact point to receive and act upon an initial notification from the nuclear installation on a 7-day/24 hour basis (Chapter 5).
  2. Establishment of detailed arrangements and procedures for implementing precautionary or protective measures (Chapter 5).
  3. Planning data concerning the municipality to include demographic data, institutional data, resource inventory, etc.
  4. Details regarding a public alerting system meeting the requirements of Section 5.7.
  5. Details regarding a nuclear public education program (Annex C).
  6. Details regarding the provision of emergency information (Chapter 4 & 5).
  7. Arrangements to receive and accommodate evacuees, including liaison arrangements with other host municipalities, as appropriate.

Response

  1. Implement the municipal emergency plan for nuclear emergencies (prepared pursuant to this PNERP and the EMCPA).
  2. Carry out the required emergency response under the guidance and support of the province prior to a declaration of a provincial emergency.
  3. Implement the directions of the province following an emergency declaration, and pursuant to any orders which may be made by the Province (section 7.0.2 of the EMCPA refers).

Training and Exercises

  1. Ensure that all municipal personnel assigned any functions under emergency plans for nuclear emergencies are suitably trained for their tasks.
  2. Implement and participate in nuclear emergency training and exercises.

Infrastructure

  1. Ensure availability of the essential facilities, emergency centres, resources and equipment required by municipal agencies to deal with a nuclear emergency.

Appendix 16 To Annex I

Responsibilities

Designated Municipalities

(Acting as a Host Municipality)

Municipalities designated pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMPCA as municipalities acting as host municipalities, have the following responsibilities:

Preparedness

Prepare a municipal plan for dealing with nuclear emergencies, which includes:

  1. Arrangements to deal with receiving and accommodating evacuees from designated municipalities.
  2. Coordination of reception plans and procedures with the nuclear facility’s monitoring & decontamination arrangements.
  3. Establishment of a municipal contact point, which can receive and act upon an initial notification from the provincial contact point on a 7 day / 24 hour basis.
  4. Liaison arrangements with the designated municipality (in nuclear facility primary zones) officials and with the PEOC to ensure appropriate communication during an emergency.
  5. Detailed arrangements with various municipal departments, including social services, public health, police, fire, ambulance and volunteer agencies which would be involved in staffing and security arrangements for the reception and evacuee centres.
  6. Arrangements for the provision of emergency information on reception and evacuee centre issues.
  7. This municipal emergency plan shall be based upon the PNERP, and shall conform to it.

Response

  1. Implement the municipal emergency plan for nuclear emergencies (prepared pursuant to this PNERP and the EMCPA).
  2. Carry out the required emergency response under the guidance and support of the province prior to a declaration of a provincial emergency.
  3. Implement the directions of the province following an emergency declaration, and pursuant to any orders which may be made by the Province (section 7.0.2 of the EMCPA refers).

Training & Exercises

  1. Ensure that all municipal personnel assigned any functions under emergency plans for nuclear emergencies are suitably trained for their tasks.
  2. Implement and participate in nuclear emergency training and exercises.

Infrastructure

  1. Ensure availability of the essential facilities, emergency centres, resources and equipment required by municipal agencies to deal with a nuclear emergency.

Appendix 17 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Health Canada (HC)

Health Canada has agreed to the following responsibilities:

Preparedness

  1. Provide the province with technical advice and assistance in formulating its offsite safety plans and preparations.
  2. Ensure that Federal and provincial nuclear emergency management activities are supported and coordinated in conjunction with the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP) and Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP).
  3. Work with the Province and other supporting organizations to put in place appropriate safety measures to protect the public and emergency workers from immediate and delayed health effects that may result from a nuclear or radiological event, and to mitigate the impacts of such an event on property and the environment.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide technical personnel and resources, as available, to work in the Scientific Section in the PEOC.
  2. Provide Health Canada, representatives, as available, for staffing various positions in the PEOC.

Response

  1. Ensure that the National Support Centre (NSC) is activated to coordinate federal activities relating to areas of federal jurisdiction. This may include liaison with any other potentially affected province, with United States, any other country and, international agencies.
  2. During the course of a nuclear or radiological emergency, provide the province with the results of any assessments carried out by HC relating to current and future onsite conditions which have, or are likely to have, offsite implications, especially those relating to estimation of the source term.
  3. The HC Liaison Officer in the Scientific Section will contact the appropriate HC officer, if necessary, to request additional information, or clarification of information received, on measures being taken to deal with the onsite problem.
  4. The HC member will provide technical information and advice to the Scientific Committee to assist it in performing its functions.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in training and exercises held by the province.

Study and Research

  1. Make available to the province the results of studies and research, which affect offsite safety. Within available resources, participate in such studies and research undertaken by the province.
  2. Provide the province with, or assist the province in obtaining information, studies and research, having a bearing on offsite safety, from international agencies, other countries, and other provinces of Canada.

Appendix 18 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC)

The CNSC adheres to the following principles regarding nuclear emergency management:

  • The top priorities in managing a nuclear emergency are health, safety, security and the environment;
  • Nuclear emergencies are managed in accordance with Section 9 of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), which outlines the mandate of the Commission;
  • A risk-informed approach is used; and
  • Activities are coordinated with relevant stakeholders.

Preparedness:

  1. The CNSC maintains a Nuclear Emergency Management Plan, along with supporting procedures and guidelines, to address the CNSC's response to a nuclear emergency.

Provision of Personnel

  1. The CNSC may provide CNSC representatives, as liaison positions in the PEOC during an emergency.

Response

  1. The CNSC maintains the capability to receive notice of actual or potential nuclear emergencies, and ensures that its Nuclear Emergency Management Plan can be activated at any time.
  2. The CNSC's Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) is activated in the event of a nuclear emergency.
  3. The CNSC activates its Nuclear Emergency Organisation (NEO) to respond to the situation. The NEO is separate from the CNSC's normal management structure and is therefore active during the nuclear emergency only. The NEO consists of regional, site and headquarters staff reassigned from their normal duties for the purposes of responding to the emergency. The NEO collects and shares information pertaining to the emergency in various ways that include:
  • Liaison with responders at the scene of the emergency, affected licensees, other federal government departments, provincial and municipal authorities, international partners/stakeholders, etc.
  • Analyses the information and acts as directed or as appropriate.
  1. During a nuclear emergency, the CNSC coordinates its activities with stakeholders and, as appropriate, shares information to enable informed, efficient decision making. Where necessary, the NEO advises the CNSC in making timely regulatory decisions related to the emergency.

Training and Exercises

  1. The CNSC may participate in training and exercises held by the Province

Appendix 19 to Annex I

Responsibilities

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada has agreed to the following:

Preparedness

  1. Ensure that federal and provincial nuclear emergency management activities are supported and coordinated in conjunction with Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP) and Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP).
  2. Ensure threats, alerts and advisories are issued to the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre to communicate information about potential, imminent or actual threats that endanger public health and safety.

Provision of Personnel

  1. Provide Public Safety Canada representatives for staffing in the PEOC.

Response

  1. Ensure that the Government Operations Centre is notified, to facilitate the coordination of federal activities relating to areas of federal jurisdiction. This may include liaison with any other potentially affected province, with United States, any other country and, international agencies.
  2. Notify the province, as soon as possible, of any report received of an occurrence, which has resulted, or has the potential to result, in the receipt by any person offsite (in Ontario) of a dose of ionizing radiation in excess of prescribed regulatory limits.

Training and Exercises

  1. Participate in training and exercises held by the province.

Study and Research

  1. Provide the province with, or assist the province in obtaining information, studies and research, having a bearing on offsite safety, from international agencies, other countries, and other provinces of Canada.

Annex J - Conversion Table - Imperial Radiological Units

(Ref : Paragraph 6.8.4)

Between Old Units And Système International (Si) Units

From curie to becquerel

  • kilocurie (kCi) ≈ 37 terabecquerel (TBq)
  • curie (Ci) ≈ 37 gigabecquerel (GBq)
  • millicurie (mCi) ≈ 37 megabecquerel (MBq)
  • microcurie (μCi) ≈ 37 kilobecquerel (kBq)
  • nanocurie (nCi) ≈ 37 becquerel (Bq)
  • picocurie (pCi) ≈ 37 millibecquerel (mBq)

From becquerel to curie

  • 1 terabecquerel (TBq) ≈ 27 curie (Ci)
  • 1 gigabecquerel (GBq) ≈ 27 millicurie (mCi)
  • 1 megabecquerel (MBq) ≈ 27 microcurie (μ Ci)
  • 1 kilobecquerel (kBq) ≈ 27 nanocurie (nCi)
  • 1 becquerel (Bq) ≈ 27 picocurie (pCi)`

From rem to sievert

  • kilorem (krem) = 10 sievert (Sv)
  • rem (rem) = 10 millisievert (mSv)
  • millirem (mrem) = 10 microsievert (μSv)
  • microrem (μrem) = 10 nanosievert (nSv)

From sievert to rem

  • 1 sievert (Sv) = 100 rem (rem)
  • 1 millisievert (mSv) = 100 millirem (mrem)
  • 1 microsievert (μSv) = 100 microrem (μrem)
  • 1 nanosievert (nSv) = 100 nanorem (nrem)

From rad to gray

  • kilorad (krad) = 10 gray (Gy)
  • rad (rad) = 10 milligray (mGy)
  • millirad (mrad) = 10 microgray (μGy)
  • microrad (μrad) = 10 nanogray (nGy)

From gray to rad

  • 1 gray (Gy) = 100 rad (rad)
  • 1 milligray (mGy) = 100 millirad (mrad)
  • 1 microgray (μGy) = 100 microrad (μrad)
  • 1 nanogray (nGy) = 100 nanorad (nrad)

From roentgen to coulomb/kg

  • kiloroentgen (kR) ≈ 258 millicoulomb/kg (mC/kg)
  • roentgen (R) ≈ 258 microcoulomb/kg (μC/kg)
  • milliroentgen (mR) ≈ 258 nanocoulomb/kg (nC/kg)
  • microroentgen (μR) ≈ 258 picocoulomb/kg (pC/kg)

From coulomb/kg to roentgen

  • 1 coulomb/kg (C/kg) ≈ 3876 roentgen (R)
  • 1 millicoulomb/kg (mC/kg) ≈ 3876 milliroentgen (mR)
  • 1 microcoulomb/kg (μC/kg) ≈ 3876 microroentgen (μR)
  • 1 nanocoulomb/kg (nC/kg) ≈ 3876 nanoroentgen (nR)

Prefixes

  • tera (T) = x 10 12
  • giga (G) = x 10 9
  • mega (M) = x 10 6
  • kilo (k) = x 10 3
  • pico (p) = x 10 - 12
  • nano (n) = x 10 - 9
  • micro (μ) = x 10 - 6
  • milli (m) = x 10 - 3

Annex K - Nuclear / Radiological Glossary

(for other references see Provincial Glossary)

Absorbed Dose: The amount of energy absorbed in the body, or in an organ or tissue of the body, due to exposure to ionizing radiation, divided by the respective mass of the body, organ or tissue. Expressed in terms of sieverts (or rem).

Acute Radiation Syndrome: An acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire body (or most of the body) by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time.

Alerting: Informing the population, by means of an appropriate signal, that a nuclear emergency has occurred or is about to occur.

Collective (Equivalent) Dose: An expression for the total radiation dose incurred by a population, defined as the product of the average radiation dose to a group of exposed persons and the number of persons in the group. Generally expressed in terms of person-sievert (or person-rem).

Committed (Equivalent) Dose: The radiation dose that will be received over a period of 50 years (for adults) or 70 years (for children) after a person takes in a quantity of radioactive material (by ingestion, absorption or inhalation). The dose is expressed in terms of sievert (or rem).

Containment (System): A series of physical barriers that exist between radioactive material contained in a nuclear installation and the environment. Containment usually refers only to the reactor and vacuum buildings, and integral systems such as dousing.

Contamination: The unwanted presence of radioactive material in water or air, or on the surfaces of structures, areas, objects or people.

Contiguous Zone: The zone immediately surrounding a nuclear installation. An increased level of emergency planning and preparedness is undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the potential hazard. The actual Contiguous Zone for each designated nuclear installation is specified in the relevant Implementing plans of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan.

Critical Group: A particular group among the relevant population which, by virtue of age, sex or dietary habits, is expected to receive the highest dose from a stated radiation source or exposure pathway.

Crop Control: See Produce and Crop Control.

Decontamination: Reduction or removal of radioactive contamination in or on materials, persons or the environment.

Derived Emission Limits: Limits for radioactive emissions to air and water from a nuclear facility which ensure that, under normal operating conditions, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission dose limits for members of the public are not exceeded by persons exposed to those emissions.

Designated Municipality: A municipality in the vicinity of a nuclear facility which has been designated under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, as one that shall have a nuclear emergency plan (for list see Annex A).

Dose: A measure of the radiation received or “absorbed” by a target. The quantities termed absorbed dose, organ dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, committed equivalent dose or committed effective dose are used, depending on the context. The modifying terms are often omitted when they are not necessary for defining the quantity of interest.

Dose Projection: The calculation of projected dose (see Projected Dose).

Dose Rate: The amount of radiation dose which an individual would receive in a unit of time. In the context of this Plan, the measurement units are multiples or submultiples of the sievert (or rem) per hour.

Dosimeter: An instrument for measuring and registering total accumulated exposure to ionizing radiation.

Effective (Equivalent) Dose: The sum of the weighted equivalent doses received by the organs and tissues of the body, where the weighted equivalent dose is the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue of the body multiplied by the appropriate weighting factor laid down in the Atomic Energy Control Regulations promulgated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission). Expressed in terms of sievert (or rem).

Emergency Bulletin: Directions to the public on appropriate protective and other measures to be taken during a nuclear or radiological emergency, which are issued by the province and broadcast through the media.

Emergency Workers: A person who assists in connection with an emergency that has been declared by the Lieutenant Governor in Council or the Premier, under 5.7.0.1 of the EMPCA or by the head of council of a municipality under section 4 of the EMCPA. This may include persons who are required to remain in, or to enter, offsite areas affected or likely to be affected by radiation from an accident, and for whom special safety arrangements are required. Examples of emergency workers include police, firefighters, ambulance and personnel from the Canadian Armed Forces, and other essential services. They shall not include radiation workers or ingestion monitoring field staff.

Emergency Worker Centre: A facility set up to monitor and control radiation exposure to emergency workers.

Emission: In the context of this plan, emission refers to the release of radioactive material to the environment from a nuclear facility in the form of either an airborne or a liquid emission.

Entry Control: The prevention of non-essential persons from entering a potentially dangerous area.

Environmental Decontamination: See Decontamination

Equivalent Dose: The absorbed dose multiplied by a weighting factor for the type of radiation giving the dose. Weighting factors for use in Canada are prescribed by the Atomic Energy Control Board (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission). This term is also sometimes called weighted dose. Expressed in terms of Sievert (or rem)

Evacuation: The process of leaving a potentially dangerous area.

Exposure: The act or condition of being subject to irradiation. Exposure can be either external exposure (irradiation by sources outside the body) or internal exposure (irradiation by sources inside the body).

Exposure Control: Emergency operations aimed at reducing or avoiding exposure to a plume or puff of radioactive material. Measures to deal with surface contamination and re-suspension might also be included.

Exposure Pathways: The routes by which radioactive material can reach or irradiate humans.

External Notification: The notification of organizations and agencies (not directly part of the emergency management organization) which may be affected by a nuclear emergency, or which may be required to assist in responding to it.

Far Incident : A transborder nuclear accident or event anywhere in the world which could affect Ontario, other than a Near Incident (see Near Incident).

Field Monitoring: The assessment of the magnitude, type and extent of radiation in the environment during an emergency by such means as field surveys and field sampling.

Food Control: Measures taken to prevent the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs and control of including the supply of uncontaminated foodstuffs. Where appropriate, such control may include food storage to permit radionuclide decay, diversion of food to non-human, non-food chain use or disposal of unusable stocks.

Government Operations Centre: The federal government organization located in the National Capital Region which directs the mobilization and delivery of national support to the affected province in the case of an event in or near Canada, or which coordinates federal actions in the case of an international event.

Guaranteed Shutdown State: A reactor is considered to be in this state when there is sufficient negative reactivity to ensure sub-criticality in the event of any process failure, and approved administrative safeguards are in place to prevent net removal of negative reactivity.

Hostile Action : Any deliberate action, or threat of action, which could cause a nuclear emergency.

Host Municipality: The municipality assigned responsibility in the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan for the reception and care of people evacuated from their homes in a nuclear emergency.

Imminent Emission: A radioactive emission that will occur in 12 hours or less.

Ingestion Control: Emergency response operations in which the main aim is to avoid or reduce the risk from ingestion of contaminated food and water.

Initial Notification: The notification made by a nuclear facility to Provincial and/or municipal authorities upon the occurrence of an event or condition which has implications for public safety, or could be of concern to these authorities. The criteria and channels for making such notification are usually prescribed in emergency plans.

Internal Notification: The notification by an organization to its personnel who are required to respond to an emergency.

Land Control: Control on the use of contaminated land for growing food products or animal feed.

Livestock Control: Quarantine of livestock in the affected area to prevent movement to other areas. Slaughter of such animals for food may be banned.

Milk Control: Preventing the consumption of locally produced milk in the area affected by a nuclear emergency, and its export outside the area until it has been monitored. Collection of contaminated milk, its diversion to other uses, or its destruction, may also be involved.

Near Incident : A transborder nuclear accident or event at a site within 80 km of Ontario.

Notification: Conveying to a person or an organization, by means of a message, warning of the occurrence or imminence of a nuclear emergency, usually includes some indication of the measures being taken or to be taken to respond to it.

Nuclear Emergency: An emergency caused by an actual or potential hazard to public health and property or the environment from ionizing radiation or from a nuclear facility.

Nuclear Establishment: A facility that uses, produces, processes, stores or disposes of a nuclear substance, but does not include a nuclear installation. It includes, where applicable, any land, building, structures or equipment located at or forming part of the facility, and, depending on the context, the management and staff of the facility.

Nuclear Facility: A generic term covering both nuclear establishments and nuclear installations.

Nuclear Installation: A facility or a vehicle (operating in any media) containing a nuclear fission or fusion reactor (including critical and sub-critical assemblies). It includes, where applicable, any land, buildings, structures or equipment located at or forming part of the facility, and, depending on the context, the management and staff of the facility.

Nuclear Substance: As defined in the (Federal) Nuclear Safety and Control Act.

Offsite: Offsite refers to the area outside the boundary (fence) of a nuclear facility.

Onsite: Onsite refers to the area inside the boundary (fence) of a nuclear facility.

Operational Directives: Direction given by the emergency response organization to implement operational measures.

Operational Measures: Measures undertaken by the emergency response organization to deal with the emergency, including measures to enable or facilitate protective action for the public, e.g., public alerting, public direction, activation of plans, traffic control, emergency information, etc.

Operator: holder of a subsisting licence issued pursuant to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act for the operation of a nuclear installation.

Pasture Control: Removing milk- and meat-producing animals from pasture and from access to open water sources, and supplying them with uncontaminated feed and water.

Personal Monitoring: The use of radiation monitoring devices to assess whether persons, and their belongings, including vehicles, are contaminated or not, and, if contaminated, the type and level of contamination.

Plume: A cloud of airborne radioactive material that is transported in the direction of the prevailing wind from a nuclear facility. A plume results from a continuing release of radioactive gases or particles. (This term may also be used for waterborne radioactive material resulting from a liquid emission. Where the context does not make it clear, this will be referred to as a Waterborne Plume).

Precautionary Measures: Measures which will facilitate the application and effectiveness of protective measures. (For a list of some of these, see PNERP, paragraph 2.2.7).

Primary Zone: The zone around a nuclear installation within which planning and preparedness is carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. (The Primary Zone includes the Contiguous Zone). The actual Primary Zone for each designated nuclear installation is specified in the relevant Implementing Plans of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan.

Produce and Crop Control: Restrictions on the harvesting or processing of potentially or actually contaminated crops, vegetables and fruits. Measures include: embargoing export outside the affected area; storage to allow radionuclide decay; diversion to non-food chain use; destruction and disposal of contaminated produce.

Projected Dose: The highest committed effective equivalent dose, or committed equivalent dose to a specified organ or tissue, likely to be received through all applicable exposure pathways by the most exposed member of the critical group in the area for which the projection is being made.

Protective Action Levels (PALs): Projected dose levels which provide technical guidance on the need to take certain protective measures. For values, see PNERP, Annex E.

Protective Measures: Measures designed to protect against exposure to radiation during a nuclear emergency. (see Table 2.1).

Public Alerting: See Alerting

Puff: A plume of short duration. The distinction between a puff and a plume is a matter of time. The upper limit on the duration of a puff is half an hour. (See also Plume).

Radiation: In the context of this Plan, radiation means ionizing radiation (i.e. radiation with the potential to harm human tissue or cells produced by a nuclear substance or a nuclear facility.

Radiological Emergency: Emergency caused by an actual or environmental hazard from ionizing radiation emitted by a source other than a nuclear installation

Radiological Device (RDs): could be lost or stolen radioactive sources which may be in locations resulting in radiation exposure and/or contamination of the public, contamination of a site and/or contamination of food and water supplies

Radiological Dispersal Device (RDDs): A device that causes the dissemination of radioactive material.

Radionuclide (or radioactive isotope or radioisotope): A naturally occurring or artificially created isotope of a chemical element having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta and/or gamma rays until stability is reached.

Response Sectors: The Primary Zone is subdivided into Response Sectors to facilitate the planning and implementation of protective measures.

Restoration: Operations to restore conditions to normal after a nuclear emergency.

Secondary Zone: The zone around a nuclear installation within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures against exposure from the ingestion of radioactive material. (The Secondary Zone includes both the Primary and Contiguous Zones). The actual Secondary Zone for each designated nuclear installation is specified in the relevant site-specific part of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan.

Selective Evacuation: The evacuation of a specified group of people, such as seriously ill patients in hospitals, bedridden residents of nursing homes, or disabled residents.

Sheltering: A protective measure which uses the shielding properties of buildings and their potential for ventilation control to reduce the radiation dose to people inside.

(For details, see section 2.2).

Source Term: A generic term applied to the radioactive material released from a nuclear facility. It includes the quantity and type of material released as well as the timing and rate of its release. It could apply to an emission that was currently occurring, or one which had ended, or one which could take place in the future.

Special Group: A group for which special constraints arise in the application of a protective measure, such as intensive care patients in hospitals and institutions, bedridden patients in nursing homes, handicapped persons and prison inmates.

Support Municipality: Pursuant to section 7.0.2 (4) of the EMPCA, the LGIC may, by order, specify a municipality to act in a support capacity to provide assistance to designated municipality(ies).

Thyroid Blocking: The reduction or prevention of the absorption of radioiodine by the thyroid gland, which is accomplished by the intake of a stable iodine compound (such as potassium iodide) by people exposed or likely to be exposed to radioiodine.

Transborder Nuclear Emergency: A nuclear emergency involving a nuclear facility or nuclear accident or event outside the borders of Ontario that might affect people and property in the province.

Venting: The release to the atmosphere of radioactive material from the containment of a nuclear facility through systems designed for this purpose.

Vulnerable Group: A group which, because it is more vulnerable to radiation, may require protective measures not considered necessary for the general population, such as pregnant women and, in some cases, children.

Water Control: Measures taken to avoid the contamination of drinking water supplies and sources, and to prevent or reduce the consumption of contaminated water.

Weighted Dose. Expressed in terms of sievert (or rem).

1 1 Italicized words are defined in the Glossary (Annex K).

2 Pursuant to the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA).

3 A nuclear establishment is a facility that uses, produces, processes, reprocesses, stores or disposes of a nuclear substance (as defined in the federal Nuclear Safety and Control Act), but does not include a nuclear installation.

4 A nuclear installation is a facility containing a nuclear reactor.

5 The term ‘intolerable’ is one used by the UK to denote radiation levels at which protective measures should be undertaken. These levels are not absolute but are relative to the risk and cost involved in adopting various measures to avoid radiation dose. The levels chosen for Ontario are defined in the Protective Action Levels (section 2.7 below).

* Normally applicable only to Recovery Phase

7 Terms shown in italics are defined in the Glossary, Annex K.

8 Community Emergency Operation Centres is used in this Plan as a generic term and includes a centre set up by a Regional municipality.

9 The term ‘practically 100%’ means that the signal can be heard by everyone in the alerting area unless exceptional circumstances, as hearing impairment, loud machinery operations etc., provide an impediment.

10 The term ‘area wide basis’ means that the alert signal will cover that geographical area as defined, but does not presume that practically 100% of all persons within that geographical area will necessarily hear the public alerting signal.

11 referred to as ‘The Solicitor General’ in the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.

12 The General Province-wide Monitoring Plan shall be placed on standby whenever the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan is fully or partially activated. The Radiation Health Response Plan shall not be automatically activated, but shall require a specific direction for this as prescribed in that plan.

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