Emergency Response Plans

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANS

Preamble – Introduction to the Guideline

The purpose of this guideline is to aid a municipality in preparing an evacuation plan. It is not intended to be an all-inclusive instruction manual. The guideline presents evacuation planning concepts that may be applied for various scales of evacuations and sizes of municipalities. The detail required in a Municipal Evacuation Plan may vary according to the needs of the municipality. By providing information about planning techniques, strategies, and tactics, the guideline aids emergency management staffi in determining what information should be considered when creating an evacuation plan. This guideline aligns with the Template for the Development of a Municipal Evacuation Plan (Appendix 1). Additional tools are provided including a sample host community agreement (Appendix 2), a pre-planning worksheet (Appendix 3), an evacuation/return checklist (Appendix 4), and a sample sector map (Appendix 5).

Chapter 1 – Purpose of the Municipal Evacuation Plan

An evacuation is defined as the process of removing people from an area where a present or imminent situation has or may result in a loss of life and/or a risk to the safety, health and welfare of people. Damage to property or the environment may also trigger an evacuation if it poses a risk to the safety, health, and welfare of people.

A municipal evacuation plan will help streamline the evacuation process by providing an organized framework for the activities involved in coordinating and conducting an evacuation. It assigns responsibilities to municipal employees, by position/function, for implementation of the municipal evacuation plan. The plan also sets out the procedures for notifying the members of the Municipal Emergency Control Group, municipal and other responders, the public, the province, neighbouring communities, and as required, other impacted and interested parties, of the emergency. The plan should identify lead departments and considerations for the development of incident-specific plans (Incident Action Plans).

Aim and Scope

The aim of an evacuation plan is to allow for a safe, effective, and coordinated evacuation of people from an emergency area. The aim is achieved by detailing evacuation considerations, hosting arrangements, transportation management, and return planning.

Municipal evacuation plans will typically identify the following:

  • organizations involved and their respective roles and responsibilities;
  • types of evacuations and the risks that might precipitate an evacuation;
  • demographics, geography, and vulnerabilities of the municipality;
  • accurate, current, and detailed mapping;
  • communications protocols;
  • resources and assets used to support evacuation operations;
  • support for evacuation decision-making and how to incorporate real-time information.

The scope of a municipality’s evacuation plan will be determined during the planning process and depend upon the following variables:

  • whether the municipality is an upper or lower tierii (it may be advisable to establish a joint plan);

the size of a municipality and the resources typically available to the municipality (if it is a small municipality and/or has limited resources coordination with other jurisdictions (through mutual assistance) and the province will be integral to the plan;

what types of evacuations the plan covers and considerations for shelter-in-place;

what role non-governmental organizations, other municipalities and levels of government may play in an evacuation;

the likely notice for an evacuation that would impact the municipality and characteristics of the hazard (the triggering incident).

Authority and Maintenance

The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, RSO, 1990, provides as follows:

  • 3. Municipal Emergency Plan (1):  Every municipality shall formulate an emergency plan governing the provision of necessary services during an emergency and the procedures under and the manner in which employees of the municipality and other persons will respond to the emergency and the council of the municipality shall by by-law adopt the emergency plan;
  • 9. What Plan may provide:  An emergency plan formulated under section 3, 6 or 8 shall,

o (b) specify procedures to be taken for the safety or evacuation of persons in an emergency area;

A municipal evacuation plan may be a stand-alone plan or part of a larger, overarching municipal emergency response plan. The municipal authority under which the plan falls (i.e. by-law) should be reflected in the plan.

The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act requires that a municipality “review and, if necessary, revise its emergency plan every year (RSO, 1990, 3 (6)).” It is recommended that this approach to plan maintenance be also applied to the municipal evacuation plan. Maintenance could be pre-planned to occur annually, or be done after an evacuation. Decisions should be made on the review and revision cycle of the plan, and who is responsible for it.

Plan Development

Municipal Evacuation Plans should outline how needed functions will be performed and by what organization (e.g. emergency social services includes emergency shelter, which may be set up in a municipal arena and managed by a non-governmental organization). Evacuations are often multi-jurisdictional activities, making extensive coordination amongst numerous departments and governments necessary. Emergency managers should consider including representatives from the following organizationsiii in evacuation planning, training, and exercises in order to build a more comprehensive plan and aid in the implementation of an evacuation should the need arise:

  • police service of jurisdiction
  • municipal transportation staff
  • emergency management and emergency response departments (e.g. EMS and Fire)
  • transportation and transit providers
  • public health
  • local health care facilities
  • emergency social servicesiv
  • municipal planners
  • neighbouring or partner municipalities (e.g. upper/lower tier, mutual aid)
  • provincial government partners (e.g. EMO, MOHLTC, MTO, OPG)
  • community service providers (e.g. homeless shelters)
  • volunteer organizations and private-sector companies (e.g. Bruce Power) that may support an evacuation
  • school boards
  • colleges and universities

Chapter 2 – Pre-Planning

Context

The evacuation plan should include a profile of the municipality. This includes details on the municipality, hazards that may necessitate an evacuation, and demographics. More research and analysis will likely be undertaken in the pre-planning phase than is reported in the plan.

Consider the characteristics of the municipality that may affect the execution of an incident-specific evacuation plan. For example:

  • Is the municipality in northern or southern Ontario?
  • Is the municipality predominantly urban or rural?

o These two factors may affect transportation options and the resources that may be accessed close to the municipality

  • Is the municipality single, upper, or lower tier and how will that affect responsibilities during an evacuation?
  • Is the municipality densely populated in some or all areas?
  • Is the location of the municipality and the populated areas likely to impose particular challenges for an evacuation?
  • What are the main industries or employers in the municipality?
  • Are there some areas that only have a single point of access (e.g. an island with a single bridge)
  • Are some areas mainly residential, industrial, or commercial, and/or known for having a high population of students or tourists? (Zoning maps used in land use planning may be beneficial in identifying institutional uses and settlement areas)

It may be advisable to divide the municipality into ‘sectors’ for the purpose of evacuation planning (see Appendix 5 for a sample sector map). This can assist in the development of incident-specific plans by dividing a large area into smaller, more manageable areas; allowing for staggered or phased evacuations; or differentiating between areas with higher relative risk. Sectors may also be established by using census or enumeration areas, or natural geographic barriers. Consider including a profile of each sector containing the following information as an annex to the plan:

  • summary sheet
  • map of the sector
  • boundaries
  • description of the sector
  • potential shelter list
  • facility survey (including health care, special care, and child care facilities)
  • number of households
  • evacuation routes
  • sector hazards
  • special circumstances
  • emergency response procedures
  • special populations
  • other resources

Description of Hazard and Risk

List hazards that have the greatest potential to require an evacuation (Refer to the municipal Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) or Community Risk Profile). Consider the geographic area potentially affected:

  • Can the hazard affect the entire municipality or a specific facility/area? Include a map if it’s a specific area; if a facility, include its description.
  • Does the hazard have the potential to migrate outside of municipal boundaries or does it start elsewhere and migrate into the municipal boundaries?

Describe the typical lead time and/or the time of year that an evacuation is most likely to occur.

Real-time Threat Assessment

Identify the process for conducting real-time threat assessments and how the real-time threat assessment will inform the decision to evacuate.

Hazardous Materials

Evacuations may be caused by hazards that lead to the contamination of people, the environment, equipment/facilities, and critical infrastructures (e.g. chemical, biological, radiological, and/or nuclear). The nature of the contaminants will vary and different contaminants may require different approaches to decontamination and treatment.

Since the presence of contaminants in an emergency area will greatly complicate evacuation operations, a municipality’s evacuation plan should take into account procedures and equipment for these situations. Emergency responders may not be able to enter an area without subjecting themselves to an unreasonable level of risk, or they may need to wear and use specialized personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves. As a result, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) procedures should be incorporated into the evacuation plan.

In addition to the effects on emergency responders, residents may also be limited in their ability to move through the affected area safely. They may have no means of leaving their locations without becoming contaminated. In such scenarios, sheltering in place must be considered as a strategy for protecting public safety (see the Shelter-in-Place section 2.5).

In order to prevent the spread of contamination, evacuees may need to be isolated from unaffected locations and populations until being decontaminated. Decontamination could necessitate specialized screening and cleaning resources, and expertise, and may be required before people are transported to advanced care and sheltering facilities.

Potential Evacuation Populations

A critical element of any evacuation is the population being moved. All activities and efforts should be focused on moving these people from the at-risk area to places of safety in a timely manner. The size and demographics of the population are significant factors in determining how to conduct an evacuation.

Emergency managers must understand the makeup of the population who are to be evacuated before they can make decisions about transportation modes, route selections, hosting destinations, and the many other elements of an evacuation.
Critical factors include:

  • number of evacuees

o How many people are likely to be involved in the evacuation?

o Are there differences in the number of potential evacuees when time of day and seasonal populations are taken into account?

  • languages spoken
  • location of evacuees

o How are people distributed within the at-risk area?

o Are there concentrations of people (residents/employees) in particular locations (e.g. large centres of employment, commercial, or settlement areas) that should be anticipated as part of the plan?

o What are the likely areas of traffic congestion that correspond to the different types of high population densities?

  • modes of transportation available and/or preferred by evacuees

o How are evacuees likely to travel during an evacuation?

o What percentage of evacuees has personal vehicles available to them?

o Are there significant numbers of people who commute by transit and therefore may rely on public transportation?

o Are people able to or likely to use alternative modes such as bicycles and walking during an evacuation? If so, how many?

o In what directions will evacuees want to travel during an evacuation? Evacuees are likely to travel towards certain destinations – their homes, work sites, and children’s schools.

o Consider the total numbers of evacuees by travel direction.

  • preferences of evacuees with respect to the location of hosts
  • potential limitations to modes of transportation
  • persons who may require specialized or additional assistance (This could be due to evacuees not having access to personal transportation, having limited financial resources, or being unfamiliar with the area and the road network)

o What population groups will need special assistance during an evacuation?

o What types of assistance might be required?

o Is assistance only required for the actual evacuation or at shelters as well?

  • populations in known areas of high risk, such as close to hazardous materials storage sites or flood-prone areas

o Are there populations that live/work in close relation to specific sites or facilities that pose a potential hazard that may be responsible for generating an evacuation?

For planning purposes it may be advisable to increase the estimate of evacuees to account the evacuation shadow (these are the people who evacuate though they are not officially requested to do so.) This is a spontaneous evacuation, conducted when people feel they are in danger and begin to leave in advance of official instructions to do so or in spite of advice to shelter-in-place. It has been estimated that between 5 and 20 percent of people will anticipate an evacuation and self-evacuate. It is important to consider how these variables may impact the transportation system and/or sheltering.

Below is a list of population categories (though not exhaustive) that may require particular attention in an evacuation:

  • persons with disabilities:

o sensory (e.g. hearing, vision, colour-blindness)

o mobility (e.g. visible and non-visible)

o mental health (e.g. Anxiety, Depression)

o intellectual/developmental (e.g. Autism, Down Syndrome)

o learning disabilities (e.g. Dyslexia, Dysgraphia)

  • persons with medical conditions, including females with high-risk or at-term pregnancies
  • persons requiring addiction services
  • persons requiring translation services
  • incarcerated persons – halfway houses
  • temporary populations (e.g. tourists, seasonal workers)

o Tourists could need detailed information about the area and evacuation procedures due to their unfamiliarity with the area.

  • students and children (e.g. in colleges, schools, and childcare centres)
  • persons with animals/petsv, including service animals
  • elderly persons
  • homeless persons

Details on populations that may require special assistance during an evacuation may be obtained from the departments and organizations involved in planning, such as public health, social services, etc. The sources below may assist in determining how many people may require extra supports:

  • census data - low income, single parent households, elderly
  • vehicle ownership statistics
  • pet ownership statistics
  • public transportation usage statistics

To ensure that considerations such as advance warning and transportation are factored into the planning, areas with high concentrations of people needing additional assistance to evacuate should be identified. The type of instruction and assistance may vary. For example:

  • Long-term care residents may require vehicles equipped to serve riders in wheelchairs or medical transportation.
  • An evacuation involving incarcerated individuals would require secure transport and hosting arrangements.

The municipality should meet with institutions (e.g. long term care, hospitals, correctional facilities, etc.) to ensure they have evacuation plans in place.

In municipalities where the majority of evacuees make their own transportation and shelter arrangements, it may not be necessary to compile lists of evacuees according to categories (Ideally, evacuees would still register to allow for tracking and inquiry). However, the municipality may wish to establish lists of evacuees (e.g. if transportation is being provided) to prioritize evacuation resources. The health-care organization may assist with the development of these lists. Different types of hazards may dictate variations in the criteria for these categories (e.g. if smoke is the issue, then people with respiratory problems may be prioritized). If evacuees are being divided into categories according to priority, the stages below are typically used:

  • Medical Evacuation (Medevac)

o Medevac is used for those individuals receiving home care or residing in a health-care facility in the evacuating community that qualify for medical transfer as per the Ambulance Act (evacuation by emergency medical services (EMS) or Ornge).

o This stage is typically orchestrated through the existing health procedures used in the community.

o If local conditions (e.g. smoke or weather) prevent normal medical flights/transport, emergency medical evacuation assistance using federal assets may be requested.

  • Stage 1 evacuees

o Stage 1 evacuees are defined as vulnerable populations.

o This includes persons with disabilities, seniors, children, pregnant women, and those with medical conditions.

o Among these, some require attendant care, which means both the caregiver and the Stage 1 evacuee they care for should be on the Stage 1 evacuation list.

  • Stage 2 evacuees

o Stage 2 evacuees are all remaining residents of the community.

o It is important to consider family members that should be kept together—including those who are identified as more vulnerable—when identifying where individuals will be hosted.

  • Essential Services (Optional)

o In a complete evacuation, it may be advisable to create an essential services list. This list should contain the names of persons needed to restart systems that must be in place before evacuees can return home (e.g. emergency service staff, nurses, grocery store’s employees). In some situations and if it is safe to do so, some essential service personnel should remain in the community to provide security, and/or information, and assessment on the conditions in the community.

Some people will not evacuate when advised to do so. People may choose not to evacuate for one or more of the following reasons:

  • a delay in the official warning
  • no request for evacuation being made
  • people downplaying the risk
  • unclear warning messages
  • a lack of economic resources
  • evacuation fatigue
  • fear of looting
  • inability to evacuate
  • inconvenience
  • anticipation of re-entry delays
  • job constraints
  • pets

In addition to addressing the above reasons (if possible), people may be convinced to evacuate through the following actions:

• having persons of authority deliver the warningvi (e.g. police officers/firefighters going door to door etc.); and/or

• including the name and address of the person refusing to evacuate in a central registry to record the refusal

Types of Evacuations

Evacuations may take place prior to (pre-emptive), during (no-notice), or after (post-incident) an incident has occurred. An evacuation may encompass the majority of the population (wide-spread) or part. A partial evacuation is most often internal – that is the evacuees are hosted elsewhere within the municipality, rather than being hosted in a separate municipality. It may be advisable to conduct evacuations (and returns) in phases to minimize congestion.

Pre-emptive Evacuation

Given adequate warning about a hazard, sufficient resources, and a likely threat, it is advisable to conduct pre-emptive evacuations. A pre-emptive evacuation may be undertaken when it is clear that if delayed, conditions (weather or other hazard) would impede evacuation.

No-notice Evacuation

It may be advisable to carry out an evacuation even while a threat is affecting a community. With an evacuation of this type, decisions may need to be made with limited information. Decision-makers must be willing to make decisions with whatever information is available at the time. They may have little or no time to wait for additional information because any delay may have a significant impact on public safety. Pre-planning will be instrumental in supporting decision-making in no-notice situations.

Evacuations of this nature are done when life safety is at extreme risk. Such an evacuation poses increased risks to all involved. To acquire resources and expedite the evacuation normally requires extraordinary measures. Emergency responders may require personal protective equipment, as responder safety will be critical. Federal assets may be required to facilitate an evacuation of this type.

Post-incident Evacuation

After a threat has already impacted a community it might be necessary to

  • remove residents from an environment that is no longer able to sustain them
  • prevent or mitigate the onset of further consequences leading to a prolonged or new emergency
Partial Evacuation

Partial evacuations typically are localized to a specific area of a municipality and may be caused by fires, hazardous materials incidents, etc. There is often on-scene activity by emergency response personnel who may direct the evacuation.

Widespread Evacuation

Larger incidents may affect an entire city or region. Evacuations of this type often involve a large number of evacuees, possibly from more than one municipality. This will require intensive effort by emergency management personnel to coordinate, transport, and shelter the affected populations, and will place greater demands on staff and resources.

Incidents that precipitate a wide-spread evacuation typically cause far-reaching damage and are therefore more likely to compromise critical infrastructure in a manner that hinders evacuee movement. Structural damage to the transportation system, such as bridges, tunnels, and highway systems may render them unsafe for use. If these sites are located on evacuation routes, those routes may be unavailable, and alternatives will need to be identified. In cases where the transportation network is severely restricted by such damage, sheltering in place may be a safer short-term alternative.

Internal Evacuation

An internal evacuation is where evacuees are hosted at another location within the same municipality as opposed to being hosted by another municipality.

Spontaneous Evacuation

Spontaneous evacuation (self-evacuation) is when people choose to evacuate without explicit direction to do so. If people spontaneously evacuate, they may still request shelter or other services.

Shelter-in-Place

If the present location affords adequate protection against the particular incident, emergency managers should consider having people shelter-in-placevii to reduce the number of persons who become part of an evacuation. While the primary goal of any response action is to save lives, the ability to evacuate people quickly and efficiently should be weighed against the risks of remaining in place.

There are certain instances when ‘Shelter-in-place’ is the most appropriate strategy; such as if:

  • The risk to health is low.
  • The situation is dissipating.
  • The situation can be controlled before an evacuation would be completed.
  • An evacuation would expose people to more risk.

Examples of situations wherein people may be more at risk should they evacuate include if:

  • transportation infrastructure is compromised
  • aftershocks are occurring
  • toxic or radiological contaminants are present
  • impending weather conditions may pose a risk
  • there are secondary fires and explosions

Transportation

Local transportation staff should be involved in the development of the evacuation plan. Their understanding of the regional transportation network enables them to identify ways to improve the carrying capacity of roadways and transit systems in a safe manner. Partners that could be involved include the local police service, Ontario Provincial Police, Ministry of Transportation, municipal transportation departments, etc.

Once emergency managers have determined the number and geographic distribution of potential evacuees, these statistics can be analyzed against the transportation network. In most evacuation scenarios, the majority of evacuee movements will take place on roadways and highways, in both personal vehicles and transit vehicles. Given the potentially large numbers of vehicles that will be accessing the roadway network at the same time, it is important to consider what can be done to increase the capacity of roadways.

The following factors/questions should be considered in evacuation planning:

  • What is the distribution of the evacuating population with respect to roadways and highways?
  • What routes are available to quickly move at-risk populations to safe locations?

o Routes between facilities and residences, and shelters may be pre-identified or prepared in such a way as to allow dynamic identification of routes when an evacuation is pending (e.g. within a GIS).

  • What is the carrying capacity (i.e. number of vehicles per hour) of roadways and highways and are there options for increasing the capacity (i.e. is lane reversal possible)?

o Pre-planning routes assists in maximizing the capacity of available transportation assets.

  • Are there locations where congestion may occur (e.g. railroad crossings, interchanges, lane reductions, etc.)?
  • Are there locations that are particularly vulnerable to damage (e.g. bridges or tunnels)?

o The safety of pre-defined routes may be analyzed for specific threats (some routes may be more protective than others).

  • Are potential sheltering and care destinations (i.e. fuelling stations, rest stops, breakdown areas, and towing services) aligned with roadways and highways?
  • What is the proximity to alternate routes?

o Identify secondary and alternate routes that can be used if primary routes become overwhelmed or incapacitated.

o Determine how alternate routes will affect the overall capacity of the network, and make contingency plans accordingly.

  • Is there a means to stage evacuations so that roadway congestion is minimized?
  • Are there designated routes for incoming traffic (i.e. vehicles/equipment from external agencies)?
  • What planning, operational staff, systems, and activities are needed to implement the chosen tactics during an evacuation?
  • Should lanes be dedicated for high occupancy vehicles and any other special population groups (i.e. more vulnerable persons)?

Recognize that different traffic management tactics (and different routes) may be more or less appropriate for certain types of situations. The plan may identify a number of options, but requires planners to select and implement only certain tactics based on the specific circumstances during the evacuation. If possible, transportation staff should employ traffic modeling to test the routes and tactics to be included in the evacuation plan. This will provide data to help quantify the benefits of different strategies and support an informed decision as to the best ones for the particular region and transportation network.

For planning purposes, the following estimates may be used:

  • 2.1 passengers/vehicle
  • 1000 cars/hour/per lane on arterial roads (high capacity roads that link residential streets to highways)
  • 1900 cars/hour/lane if the arterial road does not have control measures (i.e. traffic lights)

These figures are average and do not take into consideration an emergency situation or other factors that may be present during an evacuation.

Pre-planning assists decision-makers in determining suitable transportation options for inclusion in the incident-specific plan. The real-time threat assessment, type of evacuation, resources available and needed, and the number of people to be evacuated will dictate what transportation options are best. When planning an evacuation, all transportation options should be considered. In addition, consider:

  • if evacuees require transportation assistance
  • road conditions such as snow, rain, fog, glare, and flooding
Traffic Management

The purpose of the traffic management portion of the plan is to ensure

  • evacuation routes are kept clear and are used as intended
  • emergency vehicles can access the emergency area
  • unauthorized vehicles are kept out of the emergency area

The traffic management section outlines tactics that may be used to move traffic more efficiently. The challenge lies in identifying those tactics that provide the greatest increase in carrying capacity while being realistic in terms of time and resource requirements. Traffic management tactics may include:

  • the assignment of police resources to strategic locations to prevent congestions and unauthorized access to an emergency area
  • the use of additional signage to provide direction to evacuees on routes, destinations, etc.
  • converting two-way roads to one-way
  • modifying traffic light controls at appropriate intersections
  • dispatching tow trucks and other equipment as appropriate to remove obstacles
  • establishing temporary holding lots for disabled vehicles in order to keep routes clear for evacuating traffic
  • closure of inbound lanes on selected roads and highways to prevent people from entering an area while evacuations are taking place
  • establishing a high-occupancy vehicle lane

In terms of the best tactics to employ in an evacuation, the choice depends on the unique characteristics of the municipality’s and region’s transportation network and the characteristics of the emergency.

Evacuation Destinations

A municipality may wish to identify short-term locations where people can assemble for registration, family reunification and/or transportation to another location. Due to the uncertain nature of incidents that trigger evacuations, the evacuees may be able to return directly to their residence or place of employment from the assembly point once it is safe to do so. Assembly points are typically well-known landmarks that have the capacity to handle large numbers of people, have bus access, and an indoor sheltering area. Pre-identifying sufficient assembly points in relation to the transportation network and evacuation routes will allow these locations to be incorporated into the evacuation plan.

Assembly points should be properly controlled to ensure that

  • people do not return to the emergency area
  • transportation out of the area flows freely and effectively
  • personnel can receive updates on the situation

For incidents of longer duration, these assembly points can serve as collection points for evacuees who have walked or ridden transit from the at-risk area, and who now must wait for transport (buses, etc.) to longer-term sheltering facilities.

Sheltering facilities should be identified, assessed, and prepared in advance of being needed.viii In addition, shelters in neighbouring municipalities (i.e. host communities) should be identified and referenced in mutual assistance agreementsix. As part of the planning process, planners should estimate the number of evacuees that may require shelter compared to those who will make their own arrangements. In addition, planners should consider special needs that may need to be accommodated within a shelter (e.g. visible or non-visible disability).

The ability of a sheltering facility to accommodate such special needs groups will depend on its on-site design and capabilities. Evacuation planners should determine which special needs groups should be routed to particular shelters, and how to incorporate such direction into the evacuation plan.

By comparing shelter capabilities and capacities with the anticipated evacuation population, a jurisdiction can ensure it has made adequate sheltering arrangements, including the appropriate staffing levels for each shelter.

By pre-identifying sheltering facilities, their locations can be evaluated in relation to proposed evacuation routes and other components of the transportation network. Planners should assess shelters’ locations, as well as their capabilities and capacities, facilities and resources, in relation to how evacuee traffic will be routed.

In terms of First Nation evacuations, JEMS Service-level Evacuation Standardsx defines short-term shelter services as a period between 1 and 14 days. Municipalities may use this standard as a guide for selecting shelters and planning for shelter services.

Municipalities may set-up and support shelters with municipal staff or they may have an agreement with another organization (e.g. NGO) to provide shelter services. If shelters are run by another organization, it is advisable for municipal staff to work closely with shelter operators to provide regular updates on the emergency situation and for the municipality to be aware of the status of evacuation operations.

Analysis

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to analyze available data, including highlighting key aspects of the potential evacuation populations. Densely populated areas, critical facilities and/or locations of high risk (e.g. floodplains, power generating plants, hazardous materials processing/storage sites, etc.) may be mapped over the transportation network and sheltering locations in order to assist in planning.

Pre-planning can be used to help determine specific evacuation strategies should one of the pre-identified incidents occur. Based on the location and type of hazard, a municipality can prioritize which areas (sectors) should evacuate first, and have pre-identified decision points and triggers for declaring an evacuation. Significant evacuee populations may be mapped against the proposed evacuation transportation and sheltering network to determine projected demand levels on their chosen travel routes.

Chapter 3 – Response Plan and Procedures

Implementation of Plan

The plan must state who has the authority to initiate the notification process and implement the plan. That authority may lie with key individuals, such as any member of the Municipal Emergency Control Group or a department head. The person responsible for maintaining the notification list for internal personnel and external partners should be clearly indicated. A clear and succinct notification process must show who is responsible for making the notification contacts and list the primary and secondary notification methods. The Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) should be notified of an evacuation as soon as possible.

In the evacuation plan, reference should be made to the process for declaring an emergency as per the Municipal Emergency Response Plan and any evacuation specific considerations/triggers for declaring an emergency.

Evacuation Considerations

Evacuation should be considered when other response measures are insufficient to ensure public safety. Factors influencing the decision to evacuate include:

  • the level of threat to the lives and well-being of the population
  • the urgency of the evacuation
  • environmental safety (i.e. whether the environment poses a threat to the safety, health, and welfare of the population – e.g. smoke conditions)
  • meteorological conditions (e.g. precipitation, and wind speed and direction)
  • the scale of the incident (i.e. the number of people and/or communities to be evacuated)
  • the time frame required to move the population
  • the availability of reliable information
  • the capacity of the community to address the threat or its impact
  • damage to community infrastructure such that:

o food, water, and shelter are not immediately available

o debris restricts movement

o electrical power is or will be unavailable for an extended period of time

o local emergency or public communications is or will be unavailable

o health services, medical facilities, and medical transport are or will be unavailable

The urgency of an evacuation is determined based on the immediacy of the threat to the community (life, safety, health, and welfare), the resilience of the community, and (depending on the nature of the threat) the availability of resources for evacuation or shelter-in-place.

If the emergency involves hazardous materials or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) materials, consider the following to assist in deciding between evacuation and shelter-in-place:

  • What is the nature of the material?
  • Is there a plume?
  • What are the wind direction and weather conditions?

Incident-Specific Plan

Pre-planning and analysis conducted in the development of the municipal evacuation plan will be instrumental in creating an incident-specific plan (IAP). For known site-specific risks, incident-specific information may be added to the municipal evacuation plan. In all other instances incident-specific plans will be needed to conduct an evacuation.

Based on the outcome of the real-time threat assessment, consider the type of evacuation required or if shelter-in-place is appropriate. Determine the evacuation area given the emergency situation and estimate the time and resources required to safely evacuate the area. Determine the population requiring evacuation based on the type of evacuation required, the delineation of the evacuation area, and the population statistics compiled and analysed during pre-planning. List details of the population to be evacuated including numbers of evacuees and special requirements.

Complicating factors that should be considered in the development of incident-specific plans include:

  • transportation out of the area may be difficult if congestion occurs, infrastructure is damaged, or debris hampers travel;
  • adverse weather conditions may negatively affect evacuation or may necessitate designation of extra resources to support the evacuation (e.g. warming or cooling centres);
  • families may be separated during the evacuation. This may occur before the evacuation occurs, such as when parents are at work and children are in school, or it may occur during the evacuation process. This separation may result in increased stress or even people attempting to enter an evacuated area to locate family members;
  • people may refuse to evacuate;
  • people unfamiliar with the area (i.e. tourists, visitors) may have difficulty evacuating;
  • evacuation of large groupings of people (i.e. community centres, schools, institutional settings) may require additional resources and coordination.

Staging resources and phasing evacuations may alleviate some of the above complicating factors. In addition, consider public education campaigns to advise the public on plans to re-unify families in the event of separation during an emergency. Also, include emergency information on these arrangements.

Consider a strategy for identifying locations that have been evacuated. For example, once a building has been evacuated make a mark on the front door or most visible location. In addition, evacuated areas should be clearly marked on incident-specific maps

The incident-specific plan should include the following elements:

  • definition of the evacuation perimeter (sector profiles created in pre-planning may assist in delineating the evacuation area)
  • decontamination procedures (if required)
  • probable number of evacuees
  • evacuee population characteristics
  • the likely duration of the evacuation
  • location of evacuee centres, shelters and host communities (if required)
  • communication requirements and public alerting methods
  • assembly areas
  • evacuation routes
  • traffic control tactics
  • access control and security for the evacuated area

Emergency Information and Communications

The plan should provide guidance on communications authorities and arrangements (e.g. what broadcast media to contact during and after business hours, arrangements for joint information with province and other agencies, public alerting systems, a public inquiry line). Public alerting may be the responsibility of the Community Emergency Management Coordinator, the Emergency Information Officer, an Evacuation Coordinator, or other as identified by the municipality and outlined in the plan.

Information may be pre-scripted and included as part of the Municipal Evacuation Plan or elsewhere (i.e. Municipal Emergency Information Plan) and linked to the evacuation plan. Appendix 4 provides an Evacuation/Return Checklist that may be useful in notifying the public of an evacuation.

Consider including information regarding language and communications barriers for at-risk populations. Consider a variety of communication channels that may be of assistance (e.g. alternate language radio, translation of key messages).

Notification

Notification may encompass four phases during an evacuation. These phases include pre-warning, evacuation, ongoing communications, and return (discussed in the Return section).

Pre-warning includes:

  • a brief description of the nature and severity of the emergency
  • instructions to remain calm and follow instructions
  • the likelihood that an evacuation will be required
  • details on where to go and what to bring (i.e. emergency preparedness kit)

o toiletries, clothing, medication, identification, bedding, food, recreational items, etc.

o ensuring the safety of evacuated properties (e.g. gas and water, weatherproofing)

o what to do about pets and livestock

  • shelter-in-place instructions if warranted
  • travel instructions including available options
  • where to get more information

Evacuation instructions will typically include the following:

  • authority for calling for an evacuation
  • the time and date the evacuation is in effect
  • the nature of the emergency
  • delineation of the affected area
  • statement regarding the danger in remaining in the emergency area
  • instructions on leaving the emergency area including the evacuation route
  • the expected length of the evacuation (if known)
  • how to register and/or which evacuee centre to go to
  • transportation options and assembly points
  • where to get more information

Ongoing communications should be maintained through the length of the evacuation until the return is completed. The purpose of ongoing communications is to provide:

  • news about the status of the emergency situation and progress in combatting it
  • information for evacuees and the general public regarding how to get in touch with evacuees
  • updates on the likely length of the evacuation

Arrangements with Neighbouring Communities and/or Lower and Upper-Tiers

Mutual Assistance Agreements can be expanded to include evacuation planning. It is important to ensure that they contain realistic expectations of each municipality’s capabilities. This could be in terms of the number of a specific resource a municipality has access to; the number of evacuees a municipality is able to shelter; or the response time for emergency response personnel from another community to arrive on-scene. It may be necessary to establish agreements with other communities when an emergency is threatening or occurring if mutual assistance agreements are not in place or may be insufficient to address the emergency. Appendix 2 contains a sample Host Community Agreement.

Registration

Determine who will be responsible for registering evacuees. The municipality should work with its records management staff to review its registration and inquiry practices to ensure that they permit the disclosure of evacuee information to relevant parties (i.e. those with a legitimate or legal right to know, such as families, law enforcement, or health and social services agencies). If the municipality contracts registration to a third party, the municipality is still responsible for disclosure of the evacuee information.

Functional Roles and Responsibilities

Detail what departments, organizations, and individuals would have a role in the implementation of the plan and list specific responsibilities. Consider the following:

  • Who is the initial municipal lead departmentxi (e.g. fire, police, health, EMS

Are multiple organizations required to assist with the response? If so, who are they? (i.e. municipal, upper-tier, provincial, federal, industry, and NGOs)

What are the roles and responsibilities of the lead and other response organizations involvedxii?

Identify where emergency response plans for external organizations are located (e.g. website, intranet site, EOC, etc.).

Will the Incident Management System be utilized? Is it a single or unified command?

Who are the partners (additional subject matter experts required in the EOC to provide additional expertise)?

If a third party is contracted by a municipality to provide services in an evacuation, its roles and responsibilities should be outlined within the agreement (e.g. memorandum of understanding). The agreement should also define the anticipated costs or fees associated with the delivery of the services.

Requests for additional assistance should be made through the PEOC (including requests for Government of Canada assistance).

A municipality may choose to identify an Evacuation Coordinator to lead an evacuation with minimum delay and confusion in the event of an emergency. The Evacuation Coordinator may be responsible for making arrangements for shelter, food, clothing, and other essentials. Evacuation operations will remain under the overall direction of the Municipal Emergency Control Group.

Regardless of the stage of the evacuation operation there are four roles a municipality may assume while involved in an evacuation effort. These roles, as well as their responsibilities and main areas of focus, are outlined in the chart below:

tle: Community Roles in an Evacuation - Description: This table identifies the four types of communities in an evacuation as evacuating, receiving (hosting), pass-through, or supporting. It also outlines the responsibilities of each type of community.

Resources

Identify resources needed to support the evacuation and the process for acquiring them (e.g. contact PEOC, external suppliers, 24/7 suppliers, etc.).

Include planning considerations for resources, including equipment and personnel:

  • staging areas and base camps (e.g. parking lot for trucks, rest areas for personnel)
  • access routes and transportation
  • need for specialized skill-set(s)
  • availability and accessibility of resources (required/source information)
  • cost and reimbursement
  • repair and maintenance
  • food and shelter
  • safety and security of personnel
  • critical incident stress management
  • succession planning for protracted emergency
  • re-deployment or demobilization of resources
  • return of borrowed or leased resources
  • security
  • inventory/location/items

Include a contact list of resource suppliers.

Finance

Outline financial procedures and obligations, such as:

  • pre-existing contracts with 24/7 suppliers
  • extra-ordinary expenditures
  • expenditure authorities (e.g. who can sign a purchase order?)
  • human resources considerations (e.g. tracking of over-time, volunteers, collective agreements)
  • potential cost recovery (e.g. third party liability, Ontario Disaster Relief Assistance Program for natural hazards, etc.)
  • location and procedure for accessing emergency petty cash
  • donations management

Chapter 4 – Recovery

The goal is for the municipality, citizens and businesses to recover from the event. This includes restoring the physical infrastructure where possible or desirable as well as addressing the emotional, social, economic and physical well-being of those involved. If damages have been incurred as a result of a natural hazard, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing should be engaged in terms of the Ontario Disaster Relief Assistance Program (see ODRAP Guidelines at http://www.mah.gov.on.ca/Page237.aspx).

Return

When the emergency that prompted the evacuation has been resolved it will be necessary to plan for the return of evacuees. The impacted area must be safe for residents and business owners to return. The decision to re-enter an area that has been evacuated is based on numerous public safety factors, including:

  • The threat that prompted the evacuation has been resolved or has subsided.
  • Access to the community is assured.
  • The infrastructure is safe to use (e.g. airport and roads between the airport and community).
  • Safety hazards connected to the emergency have been eliminated.
  • Weather conditions allow for a safe return
  • Services have resumed and are sufficient to support returning evacuees – for example:

o power

o water

o sanitation

o security

o food and essential supplies

o medical services

Below is a list of some of the activities which may be needed:

  • an initial assessment of damage to homes and businesses;
  • assisting any victims who did not evacuate;
  • determine if any work must be done before residents can return home (i.e. switch utilities back on, test drinking water, check for extent of damage, waste and debris management, etc.);
  • ensure evacuees are notified that the emergency is terminated and that they can return home;
  • make transportation arrangements for those requiring assistance to return home;
  • where required, provide access to counselling services;
  • ensure registration and inquiry services are available for a period of time after the emergency is over to provide people with post-emergency information.

Since the degree of damage will likely vary within the affected area it might be beneficial to initiate a phased re-entry process. As geographic areas are declared safe for re-entry, evacuees will be able to return.

Evacuees who self-evacuated using their own means of transportation should be able to return on their own. If a municipality provided transportation to shelters, it may have to organize return transportation for those evacuees. As with the initial evacuation, numerous resources, especially personnel and transportation related resources will be required to successfully return evacuees to the affected area.

When developing communications to the public, officials may consider the following:

  • Is a phased return of evacuees going to occur?
  • What services are available (or not) in the area?
  • What utilities are functional (or not) in the area?
  • What media sources can evacuees use for the most up-to-date information on re-entry procedures?
  • What routes are available to evacuees?

o Are there any vehicle restrictions in place on those routes?

  • Will evacuees require an ID to re-enter the affected area?

o Are there any security checkpoints in place?

Appendix 4 provides an Evacuation/Return Checklist that may be used to assist in planning for the return of evacuees.

Chapter 5 – Post-Event Activities

Following the return of evacuees, consider when to terminate the declaration of emergency – reference the Municipal Emergency Response Plan.

Debriefs

Consider post-event reporting procedures, such as:

  • quick tactical de-briefing (hot-wash)
  • more detailed operational de-briefing
  • questionnaire (to volunteers, contractors, media, owners of facilities used, etc.) in order to identify gaps and future considerations for improvement
  • development of an After Action Report, a financial report, and a report to program committee/council

Discuss who generates the above, when they will be created, to whom they will be presented, and how the lessons learned will be incorporated into the evacuation plan.

Chapter 6 – Preparedness

Consider what preparedness initiatives are needed for the plan (e.g. training, public education, communications).

Public Education Strategy

It is advisable to include evacuation information in public education materials. This information may include the following:

  • personal preparedness message, including contents of an emergency kit for short-notice evacuations
  • preparedness for pets
  • how an evacuation will be declared
  • what transportation options may be available
  • what support services are likely to be offered to evacuees
  • what citizens should take with them during an evacuation
  • recommendations for families with small children
  • shelter-in-place instructions
  • where to access information during an evacuation
  • to follow the advice of Emergency Response personnel when directed to evacuate

Successful efforts for public education include community seminars and preparedness pamphlets distributed to residents and businesses. Information can also be posted on municipal web sites. Public education efforts should be ongoing.

Chapter 7 – Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP)

Based on recommended practices, consider including COOP as part of the risk management process. Consider locations of municipal services, facilities and infrastructure as they may be affected by an evacuation.

Appendix 1 – Template for the Development of a Municipal Evacuation Plan

tle: Use of this Template - Description: The purpose of this template is to assist municipalities in developing a Municipal Evacuation Plan. This template is supported by the Guideline for the Development of a Municipal Evacuation Plan. Municipalities may modify any part of this document to fit their needs. Municipalities may want to design a training session(s) to facilitate the process of working through the template.

[Name of the Municipality] Emergency Evacuation Plan

Chapter 1 – Purpose of the Municipal Evacuation Plan

An evacuation is defined as the process of removing people from an area where a present or imminent situation has or may result in a loss of life and/or a risk to the safety, health and welfare of people. Damage to property or the environment may also trigger an evacuation if it poses a risk to the safety, health, and welfare of people.

This municipal evacuation plan will help streamline the evacuation process by providing an organized framework for the activities involved in coordinating and conducting an evacuation. It assigns responsibilities to municipal employees, by position, for implementation of the [insert Name of the Municipality] Evacuation Plan. This plan also sets out the procedures for notifying the members of the Municipal Emergency Control Group, municipal and other responders, the public, the province, neighbouring communities, and as required, other impacted and interested parties, of the emergency. This plan also identifies lead departments and outlines considerations for the development of incident-specific plans (Incident Action Plans).

Aim and Scope

The aim of this evacuation plan is to allow for a safe, effective, and coordinated evacuation of people from an emergency area in [insert the Name of the Municipality]. The aim is achieved by detailing evacuation considerations, hosting arrangements, transportation management, and return planning.

[The scope of a municipality’s evacuation plan will be determined during the planning process and should include the geographic extent of the plan, the jurisdiction the plan encompasses, the types of evacuations, and supporting and assisting organizations.]

Authority and Maintenance

The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, RSO, 1990, provides as follows:

3. Municipal Emergency Plan (1):  Every municipality shall formulate an emergency plan governing the provision of necessary services during an emergency and the procedures under and the manner in which employees of the municipality and other persons will respond to the emergency and the council of the municipality shall by by-law adopt the emergency plan;

9. What Plan may provide:  An emergency plan formulated under section 3, 6 or 8 shall,

o (b) specify procedures to be taken for the safety or evacuation of persons in an emergency area;

[Identify the authority this plan falls under (e.g. by-law)]

[Discuss the review and revision cycle of the plan, who is responsible for it, and how often the task will need to be carried out. It is recommended that this be done annually or after an event related to the hazard (i.e. after an exercise, after an actual emergency)]

Example: This plan is published as Annex H to the Town of Trillium Emergency Response Plan as authorized by By-law 01-05; and the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, RSO 1990. The custodian of this plan shall be the Town of Trillium Community Emergency Management Coordinator (CEMC), who is responsible for the annual review, revision, and testing of this plan.”

Chapter 2 - Pre-Planning

[Populate this section of the plan with information that will assist in the development of incident-specific plans. Provide links to additional information where appropriate (for example, sector profiles and/or systems analysis (i.e. GIS))]

Context

[Provide information on the profile of the municipality including details of the municipality that impact on an evacuation.]

Description of Hazard and Risk (refer to Municipal Community Risk Profile)

[List hazards from the Community Risk Profile that have the greatest potential to require evacuations.]

[Geographic area potentially affected (i.e. Can the hazard affect the entire community or a specific facility/area? Include a map if it’s a specific area). Does the hazard have the potential to migrate outside of municipal boundaries?]

[If applicable, describe the typical lead time and/or the time of year that an evacuation is most likely to occur.]

[Include information on probability and consequence from your HIRA. Example: a community may identify flooding as a hazard and have a flood map; however, the risk would be the potential damage to lives and property within that floodplain. (Consider the time of the day, week, or year with respect to potential municipal impact.)]

[If applicable, include maps of the impacted facilities/areas including pre-designated evacuation routes, based upon fixed-site or repeating events (floods).]

[Identify the process for conducting real-time threat assessments and how the real-time threat assessment will inform the decision to evacuate and other evacuation considerations.]

[If an evacuation may involve hazardous materials (HazMat), the evacuation plan should include a section on HazMat procedures including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for responders.]

Potential Evacuation Populations

[Provide details on the potential evacuees, including the critical factors of the population (i.e. number, languages spoken, location, modes of transportation available and potential limitations, preferred shelter/host locations, etc.). Include considerations for persons requiring additional or specialized assistance (e.g. persons with disabilities, persons with medical conditions, etc.).]

[Consideration should be made for those persons who may self-evacuate and those who may refuse to evacuate. How will this affect the evacuation plan?]

Types of Evacuations

[Identify the types of evacuations that may occur in the municipality.]

Shelter in Place

[Include shelter-in-place procedures and key decision-points. Provide a link to pre-scripted emergency information materials for shelter-in-place.]

Transportation

[Pre-identify routes between facilities, residences and shelters, to ensure that predefined routes are safe in light of a specific threat (some routes may be more protective than others), and to maximize the capacity of available transportation assets.]

[Include information on transportation tactics to be utilized for evacuations of different types to support the development of incident-specific plans.]

Evacuation Destinations

[Consider the use of ‘assembly points’ for registration, identification, family re-unification, and/or transportation to another location. Also consider the need for, location, and the number of shelters, information centres, warming centres, and/or reception centres.]

[Consider locations within the municipality as well as outside the municipality – ideally pre-established and formalized in agreements with other jurisdictions (i.e. host communities).]

[Some municipalities may have already pre-screened and compiled a list of appropriate facilities that can be referenced or form an annex to this plan.]

[Determine if and where registration centres will be set up. Depending on the situation it may be advisable to pre-register evacuees prior to directing them to another location. In some cases, registration will take place at emergency shelters.]

Chapter 3 – Response Plan and Procedures

Implementation of Plan

[Who has the authority to authorize an evacuation and implement the plan (e.g. municipal emergency control group, lead department)?]

[What is the process for declaring an emergency (link to Municipal Emergency Response Plan)?]

[Who maintains the notification list of external partners?]

[Who notifies those who have responsibilities under this plan and how?]

[It may be advisable to provide a list of personnel, supporting agencies, etc. as a confidential annex to this plan.]

Evacuation Considerations

[Identify the process for conducting real-time threat assessments and how the real-time threat assessment will inform the decision to evacuate.]

[Identify triggers for evacuation to assist in decision-making.]

Incident-Specific Plan

[List details of the population to be evacuated, including numbers of evacuees and special assistance requirements. Include the traffic control measures to be utilized.]

[Describe the type of evacuation required and if shelter-in-place is an option.]

[Define the evacuation area – it may be possible to pre-script incident-specific evacuation plans given a known hazard and a defined risk area. If possible, it may be desirable to attach these completed incident-specific plans to the plan.]

[Outline a strategy for staging or phasing evacuations to minimize congestion.]

[Consider what complicating factors may arise and therefore should be examined in the development of an incident-specific plan.]

[Consider a strategy for identifying locations that have been evacuated. For example, once a premise has been evacuated make a mark on the front door or most visible location.]

Emergency Information and Communications

[Provide evacuation emergency information and/or directions to where the information is housed. Consider including pre-written news releases and/or key messages. Refer to your municipal Emergency Information Plan, if applicable.]

[Identify communications authorities and arrangements (e.g. what broadcast media to contact during and after business hours, arrangements for joint information with the province and other agencies, and public alerting systems).]

[Provide information on or web links to public education materials (Preparedness) that have already been released by the municipality for an evacuation. This information can be used to support emergency information efforts during a response (e.g. to media, public, neighbouring communities).]

[Consider including information regarding language and communications barriers for at-risk populations. Consider a variety of communication channels that may be of assistance (e.g. alternate language radio, translation of key messages).]

[A public inquiry line should be established and communicated for those seeking information about the evacuation.]

[Include drafted media releases.]

[Identify who is responsible for public alerting/notification (e.g. CEMC, EIO, Evacuation Coordinator, etc.)]

Arrangements with Neighbouring Communities and/or Lower and Upper-Tiers

[Detail arrangements with neighbouring communities to provide assistance. Remember that resources from neighbouring communities may be already committed and/or their response may be delayed.]

[Detail the extent of municipal assistance that would be considered in assisting evacuees (financial, logistics/advice, transportation, sheltering, etc.)]

Registration

[Determine who will be responsible for registering evacuees. Some municipalities conduct their own registration, while others contract another organization (i.e. NGO) to perform this function.]

[Registration should be conducted, even for evacuees that are self-responsible, in order to assist in family re-unification, enquiries, and communications.]

Functional Roles and Responsibilities

[Detail what agencies and individuals would have a role in the implementation of the Plan and list specific responsibilities. Consider the following:

• Who is the initial community lead departmentxiii (e.g. fire, police, health, EMS)?

• Are multiple organizations required to assist with the response? If so, who are they? (i.e. municipal, upper-tier, provincial, federal, industry, and NGOs)

• What are the roles and responsibilities of the lead and other response organizations involvedxiv?

• Identify where emergency response plans for external organizations are located (e.g. website, intranet site, EOC, etc.).

• Will the Incident Management System be utilized? Is it a single or unified command?

• Who are the partners (additional subject matter experts required in the EOC to provide additional expertise)]

[If a third party is contracted by a municipality to provide services in an evacuation, its roles and responsibilities should be outlined within the agreement (e.g. memorandum of understanding). The agreement should also define the anticipated costs or fees associated with the delivery of the services.]

Resources

[Identify resources needed to support the evacuation and the process for acquiring them (e.g. contact PEOC, external suppliers, 24/7 suppliers, Supply Chain Management).]

[Include planning considerations for resources, including equipment and personnel:

• Staging areas and base camps (e.g. parking lot for trucks, rest areas for personnel)

• Access routes and transportation (including aerodromes and aircraft as required)

• Need for specialized skill-set(s)

• Availability and accessibility of resources (required/source information)

• Cost and reimbursement

• Repair and maintenance

• Food and shelter

• Safety and security of personnel

• Critical Incident Stress Management

• Succession planning for protracted emergency

• Re-deployment or demobilization of resources

• Return of borrowed or leased resources

• Inventory/location/items]

[Include a contact list of resource suppliers.]

Finance

[Outline financial procedures and obligations, such as:

• Pre-existing contracts with 24/7 suppliers

• Extra-ordinary expenditures

• Expenditure authorities (e.g. who can sign a purchase order?)

• Human resources considerations (e.g. tracking of over-time, volunteers, collective agreements)

• Potential cost recovery (e.g. third party liability Ontario Disaster Relief Assistance Program for natural hazards)

• Location and procedure for accessing emergency petty cash

• Donations Management

Chapter 4 – Recovery

[The goal is for the municipality, citizens and businesses to recover from the event. This includes restoring the physical infrastructure where possible or desirable as well as addressing the emotional, social, economic and physical well-being of those involved.]

[Consider establishing a recovery information centre where the impacted individuals can obtain additional information on the recovery process.]

Return

When the emergency that prompted the evacuation has been resolved it will be necessary to plan for the return of evacuees. The impacted area must be safe for residents and business owners to return.

[Outline the decision factors for allowing evacuees to return to the emergency area.]

[Consider what actions may be required prior to or following the return of evacuees.]

[Consider what resources may be required to execute the return (i.e. transportation).]

Chapter 5 – Post-Event Activities

Debriefs

[Consider post-event reporting procedures, such as:

• Quick tactical de-briefing (hot-wash)

• More detailed operational de-briefing

• Questionnaire (to volunteers, contractors, media, owners of facilities used, etc.) in order to identify gaps and future considerations for improvement

• Development of an After Action Report, a financial report, and a report to program committee/council]

[Discuss who generates the above, when they will be created, to whom they will be presented/shared (i.e. PEOC), and how the lessons learned will be incorporated into the evacuation plan.]

Chapter 6 – Preparedness

[Consider what preparedness initiatives are needed for the plan (e.g. training, public education, communications)]

Public Education Strategy

[It is advisable to include evacuation information in public education materials. This information may include the following:

• Personal preparedness message, including contents of an emergency kit for short-notice evacuations

• Preparedness for pets

• Where to access information during an evacuation

• To follow the advice of Emergency Response personnel when directed to evacuate]

Chapter 7 - Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP)

[Based on recommended practices, consider including COOP as part of the risk management process. Consider locations of municipal services, facilities and infrastructure as they may be affected by an evacuation.]

Appendix 2 – Sample Host Community Agreement

is annex contains a sample host community agreement shared with permission for information purposes only. Municipalities planning similar agreements should construct them according to their individual municipal by-laws and practices and with the assistance of municipal solicitors.

THIS AGREEMENT MADE THIS 24th DAY OF MAY, 2012

B E T W E E N:

THE CORPORATION OF

THE CITY OF TEMISKAMING SHORES

(“Temiskaming Shores”)

- and -

THE CORPORATION OF

THE TOWN OF KIRKLAND LAKE

(“Kirkland Lake”)

WHEREAS, the Kirkland Lake is under threat of interface forest fires as of the date of this agreement;

AND WHEREAS, Kirkland Lake declared a state of emergency pursuant to the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E.9 (the “Act”) on May 20, 2012;

AND WHEREAS, the evacuation of some or all of the residents of Kirkland Lake may become necessary in the immediate future on very short notice;

AND WHEREAS, Temiskaming Shores is the nearest community to Kirkland Lake with the capacity to assist in the reception of potential evacuees;

AND WHEREAS, section 13 of the Act makes provision for the council of a municipality to enter into an agreement with the council of any other municipality or with any person for the

provision of any personnel, service, equipment, or materials during an emergency;

AND WHEREAS, both Temiskaming Shores and Kirkland Lake recognize that the

health, safety and welfare of people are the first priority in the event of an emergency;

AND WHEREAS, Temiskaming Shores has been asked to assist Kirkland Lake with the potential reception and care of evacuees including the provision of emergency clothing, feeding, lodging, registration and inquiry, and personal services, to the extent it is able to do so;

NOW THEREFORE, the parties hereby agree to the following:

A. OPERATION OF THIS AGREEMENT

1. This agreement shall have no force or effect unless and until a large-scale evacuation of the Town of Kirkland Lake becomes necessary due to the threat of interface forest fires.

B. PROVISION OF EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE

2. If and when an evacuation of the residents of some or all of the Town of Kirkland Lake becomes necessary, Temiskaming Shores hereby agrees to render assistance to Kirkland Lake as follows:

a. to make available the use of Temiskaming Shores facilities (e.g., arenas, halls) and/or equipment to house or otherwise process, register and assist evacuees;

b. to assist in the provision of emergency services (e.g., food, clothing, personal services) to evacuees as may be required and cannot be immediately provided by Kirkland Lake;

c. to provide personnel as are necessary to maintain and operate facilities and/or equipment;

d. to provide personnel as are necessary to assist in the provision of emergency services to evacuees; and

e. such other assistance as the parties may agree upon.

C. USE OF FACILITIES & EQUIPMENT

3. In the event of evacuation, Temiskaming Shores agrees to make available to Kirkland Lake as many of its municipal facilities as is practicable to house and/or provide services to evacuees.

4. Temiskaming Shores and Kirkland Lake will give due consideration to the requirements of any facility as are required to ensure safe accommodation.

5. Notwithstanding the above paragraphs, final authority for the use and control of the facility shall rest with Temiskaming Shores.

D. STAFFING

6. While any municipal facility is in use under the terms of the agreement:

a. Temiskaming Shores shall have one or more members of its staff on the facility or facilities premises at all times to assist with the operation and maintenance of the facility; and

b. Kirkland Lake shall have one or more members of its staff on the facility or facilities’ premises at all times to assist with the operation and maintenance of the activities for the evacuees and volunteers.

E. DILIGENCE AND CARE

7. Kirkland Lake and other parties having authority to use a Temiskaming Shores facility or facilities shall exercise due diligence and care and shall not interfere with any of the facility activities unless deemed necessary as part of the response to the emergency.

8. Prior to the use of any facility, a duly authorized representative of Temiskaming Shores and a duly authorized representative of Kirkland Lake shall jointly inspect the facility or equipment to be used. A memorandum will then be signed by both parties outlining any pre-use damage or deficiencies.

9. Upon termination of use by Kirkland Lake, both parties shall again inspect the facility and make note of any damage, deficiencies or other such factors resulting from the County's use of said facility.

F. INDEMNITY

10. Kirkland Lake hereby agrees to save harmless and indemnify Temiskaming Shores, its officers, agents, contractors and employees from and against all claims, demands or causes of action whether at law or in equity, in respect of its use of its facilities or the provision of emergency services, and from and against all damages, losses, costs, charges and expenses which Temiskaming Shores may sustain or incur or be liable for in consequence of such claims or demands or causes of action, whether in negligence or otherwise, from any source whatsoever, including but not necessarily limited to:

a. claims, demands or causes of action by, or on behalf of, any officers of Temiskaming Shores or its agents, employees, agents, contractors or representatives; and

b. claims, demands or causes of action by any other person or persons using Temiskaming Shores facilities or receiving services of any kind from Temiskaming Shores.

G. COSTS

11. The parties hereby acknowledge and agree that both Kirkland Lake and Temiskaming Shores will incur costs as a result of any evacuees being received by Temiskaming Shores.

12. Temiskaming Shores agrees that any costs and/or expenses shall only ever be recovered from Kirkland Lake, under this agreement or otherwise, on a cost recovery basis.

13. In the event Temiskaming Shores is asked to receive evacuees and/or provide emergency services to Kirkland Lake, the parties acknowledge and agree that Kirkland Lake may receive funding under the Act or other provincial and/or federal emergency/disaster programs.

14. Kirkland Lake agrees to remit any funds received under the Act or other provincial and/or federal emergency/disaster programs related to the reception of evacuees in Temiskaming Shores to Temiskaming Shores upon receipt.

15. Nothing in this agreement shall preclude Temiskaming Shores from taking action to recover costs and expenses from such person(s) or entities as may be found responsible for causing the emergency, or from seeking federal and/or provincial funding to cover any or all costs incurred by Temiskaming Shores.

H. VOLUNTEERS

16. Individual volunteers, service clubs or volunteer groups and agencies such as the Red Cross, Salvation Army or St. John Ambulance who are engaged by Temiskaming Shores to manage or assist with the operation of reception centers or otherwise shall be considered agents of Temiskaming Shores.

I. TERMINATION

1. This agreement may be terminated by any of the parties hereto, by 60 days notice given in writing to the other parties by delivering the same in person or by ordinary mail. Any notice shall be deemed to have been given on the third business day following the date on which it was mailed.

J. SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS

1. This agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and assigns.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have hereunto affixed their seals attested

by the proper officers in that behalf.

CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF TEMISKAMING SHORES

 

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)

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)

)

)

)

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Mayor

 

I have authority to bind the corporation.

  
 

City Manager

 

I have authority to bind the corporation.

CORPORATION OF THE TOWN OF KIRKLAND LAKE

 

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

 
 

Mayor

 

I have authority to bind the corporation.

  
 

Chief Administrative Officer

 

I have authority to bind the corporation.

Appendix 3 – Municipal Evacuation Pre-Planning Worksheetxv

nicipal Evacuation Pre-Planning Worksheet

nicipal Evacuation Pre-Planning Worksheet

nicipal Evacuation Pre-Planning Worksheet

nicipal Evacuation Pre-Planning Worksheet

Appendix 4 – Municipal Evacuation/Return Checklist

nicipal Evacuation/Return Checklist

nicipal Evacuation/Return Checklist

Appendix 5 – Sample Sector Map

his annex contains a sample sector map shared with the permission of the City of Sarnia for information purposes only. This map shows a sector and the text below outlines the evacuation routes and clearance estimates in the case of a chemical release by nearby refineries.

mple Sector Map